Racism is a world wide problem caused by ignorance that differentiates people with skin colour and this can be solved through continuous education.
When Miss Manjit told us that we have to do a 20 pages research project, I was scared that I couldn’t do this project well. At the first week, Miss Manjit wanted us to choose a particular topic on our own. Although Miss Manjit gives us some ideas of the topic, I still thinking about the topic myself.
Finally, I found a topic is suitable for my research project.
My topic is racism. Why am I choosing this topic? This is because nowadays the problem of racism is become serious in every country. What is racism? Racism is a person who belief that some races are better than others. Racism might be occurred in any places like school, country and so on. In Malaysia, the racism problem had happened recently. The principle of a school called other races go back to their own country like Chinese go back to China and Indian go back to India.
Are we so different? We are not different at all. So I decided to choose this topic to alert everyone anti-racism.
In conclusion, every person has the same position in the world. We couldn’t look down to anyone.
Racism is the belief that a particular race is superior or inferior to another , that a person’s social and moral traits are predetermined by his or her inborn biological characteristics . Racism can also define as the belief that some races are better than others .
The definition above is not enough to explain what is ‘RACISM’ .
For an example , people who are racist don’t like other races such as their skin colour , language , customs , place of birth or any factor that supposedly reveals the basic nature of that person .
Long time ago in America , the racism problem is very serious and worst . The ‘Black’ are deserve as slave for ‘White’ . The ‘White’ don’t care about the feeling of the ‘Black’ and don’t regard them as human being . The ‘White’ can do what they like to the ‘Black’ such as beaten or insulted them .
Beside that , in Malaysia , there are 3 major races which are Malay , Chinese and Indian . There are also have racism problem among these 3 races. Every races have their own religion. Racism problem will occur easily when 2 different religion interact together. So that, it might cause fighting or quarrel.
Furthermore, racism can influence wars , slavery , the formation of nations and legal codes . If the wars happen, the country might loss a lot of people . So , we have to find solution to prevent or solve this problem .
Although there is no perfect way to solve racism problem and no matter what racism will probably always exist, what we can do however , is to limit its extent as much as possible . I think that the best way to solve this problem is knowledge. We have to think before speak out and we need to tolerant the others and prevent fighting.
‘Racist’ and ‘racism’ are provocative words in American society . To some , these words have reached the level of curse words in their offensiveness . Yet , ‘racist’ and ‘racism’ are descriptive words of a reality that cannot be denied .
( http://academic.udayton.edu/race/intro.htm )
Race issues are so fundamental in the world . For an example , some Americans believe that race is the primary determinant of human abilities and capacities . In fact , such individuals respond to people-of-colour because of race . As a consequence , people of different skin colour are injured by judgements or actions that are directly or indirectly racist. In 17th to 18th centuries, the slavery system is common in America. The Black people worked as slave for the White people. White people insult them and even abuse them .Fortunately, President Abraham Lincoln had abolished slavery. Since then the percentage of discrimination has decreased over the year. Proof? The election of President Barack Obama .
( http://academic.udayton.edu/race/intro.htm )
Another example , when Portuguese sailors first explored Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries , they came upon empires and cities as advanced as their own and they considered Africans to be serious rivals . Then , there are a match happened between them . Portuguese was the winner of the match , they began to plunder the continent and forcibly remove its inhabitants to work as slave . Actually, Africans are the aborigine , but they deserve as slave . This is a kind of racism !
( http://www.adl.org/hate-patrol/racism.asp )
Nowadays, racism problems persist and increase. Racism is present all around the globe. Why do mankind discriminate? This is because of their ignorance and their lack of knowledge. Are we so different? In fact, the only thing that differentiates us is our skin colour and nothing more. We are all human . All of us should be equally treated regardless of our skin colour, races, background and education.
Types of Racism
There are four types of racism which are:
Based on derivation and common decent; it identifies a universe with a common origin in history, but not a population with a persist biological character; used to define country states in Europe; expressed through national symbols, such as Nazi eagle, Aryan cross; believed in low quality of some nations over others.
Think that we can all be characterized by race with certain physical traits, such as brain size, sloping forehead; there is a hierarchy of races; biology determines intelligence; some races need to cultivate others providing a justification for colonialism.
Those activities which are intended to protect the advantages of a recessive group or conserve or widen the unequal position of a subordinate group; certain structures in society that systematically discriminate against certain groups, such as apartheid in South Africa, Jim crow laws in southern U.S.
No long any biological notion to suggest cultural or other inferiorities; not necessarily an supposition of inferiority or superiority; new expressions, such as immigrants, integration, cultural values, hide the racist sub-text in our culture.
History of Racism
Racism in Europe
If we said about racism , the first places that people will think is Europe . From the institutionalized racism , especially in colonial times , when racial beliefs were not considered something wrong , to recent times where the effects of neo-Nazism is still felt . Europe is a complex area with many cultures in a relatively small area of land . So that , people in Europe can have a conflict easily . Mostly , the conflict about racism such as racist other races ( think that his races is better than others and insult other races ). Besides that, European is divided into two level which are the rich and the poor. The rich discriminate the poor. For an example, there are high-class restaurants specially for the rich only. The rich would not have a meal with the poor. The rich had prejudice that the poor have high potential of committing crime and that they basically looked like criminal.
( http://www.globalissues.org/article/165/racism#RacisminEurope )
Racism in Africa
Before Africa become an independent country , there are a lot of wars ,fight occur and conflict between the aborigines and foreigners. While most of the conflicts have resources at their core and involve a number of non-African nations and corporation , additional fuel is added to the conflict by stirring up ethnic differences and enticing hatred . In Zimbabwe , there has been increasing racism against the white farmers , due to poverty and lack of land ownership by Africans. The foreigners took over the land in Africa but did not give the Africans job opportunities. The foreigners discriminate the African aborigine. They despise the African locals because of their dark black skin colour. They also think they are superior and have a higher social status as compared to the African local.
( http://www.globalissues.org/article/165/racism#RacisminAfrica )
Racism in The Middle East
Long time ago , there are political conflicts in the Middle East . This conflicts turned to racism . The situation of Palestine and Israel is also very contentious . This is because a lot of terrorist attack is made by them . For an example , 911 terrorist attack. So that , Western country against people that look Middle Eastern . Americans are also regard Palestinians and Jews as terrorist because the Middle-East countries are often related to terrorism.
( http://www.globalissues.org/article/165/racism#RacismintheMiddleEast )
Racism in India
There has long been discrimination against what is considered the lowest class in Hinduism , as well as sectarian and religious violence. Although it has been outlawed by the Indian Constitution , the richer people still racist the lowest class people in the country . The racism problem is more serious in urban areas than rural areas . The most racism problem is where most Indians live . For an example , there are a lot of richer businessmen in India and they looked down to the aborigines who are poor . People who are poor in India regard as lowest class .
( http://www.globalissues.org/article/165/racism#RacisminAsia )
Racism in Malaysia
Racism can easily occur in a country which have many races such as Malaysia . In Malaysia , there are three races which are Malay , Chinese and Indian . Malaysia is a place that u can choose your own religions and cultures . Racism can occur in any places such as school , public place or in neighbourhood . The reasons that racism will occur because all the races speak their own mother tongue and use their own language to insult other races . Beside that , different religions can also be one of the reason . Different religions have their own taboo .Taboo is a very sensitive thing to a religion . So that , racism occur easily .
Racism in Korea
Racism can be subtle , but the Koreans’ attitude to foreigners are worse than to the Koreans . They treat Koreans politely but treat the foreigners very rude . The Koreans usually treat foreigners very rude and condescending . They don’t seem to perceive outsider as entirely human .Regardless of age ( which is very important in their culture ) , they usually speak to foreigners like speak to kids ( insult the outsider like kids ). Normally, the actors’ manner in drama is not the same as in the real life.
( http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090616015912AA5 1nh9 )
Important event of Racism
History of Slavery
I think the important event of racism in the world is the ‘History of Slavery’. If we talk about ‘Slavery’, the first country we know is America . Actually , the number of African American slaves grew slowly at first , but then become an essential to the economy at the 1680s . The racism problem is a serious problem in America during the 17th and 18th centuries . During 17th and 18th centuries , there are slave trade in America , between 600,000 and 650,000 Africans had forced to travel to North America become slave .
In the early years of 18th century , the number of Native American slaves have been as much as half of the African slave population . During this transitional period , Africans and Native Americans have to share the common experience of enslavement . For an example , they work together in the fields , lived together in communal living quarters and also ultimately became lovers . The intermarriage of Africans and Native Americans was illegal at that time and occurred prolonged wars .
( http://innercity.org/holt/slavechron.html )
Slaves didn’t consolidate ethnic identifications on the basis of colour , but it was widely understood that most blacks were slaves and no slaves were white . So that , the Americans regard Africans were slave because their skin-colour are black . Slaves were the lowest class in the America during the 17th century . Furthermore , the African slaves or Americans-Indian become prisoners in American . This incident occurred because the Americans did not treat them as human being but in the end these alliances disintegrated .
( http://innercity.org/holt/slavechron.html )
Slavery spread quickly in the American colonies . Africans who travel to America were poor and worked as servants for the Americans . Then , the Americans did not paid them and became free after several years of service . From 1660s , the new laws had been used in American . According to the new laws , black slaves , children of slave women would serve for life . For an example , a child born of a slave mother was also regard as slave . Children are innocent but they also involve in this incident .
Slavery was popular in America during 1660s to 1860s . Every slaves had their own slave code on their body . These codes is are the identity of slaves . All slave codes made slavery a permanent condition . Slaves being as property but they couldn’t own property or be a party to a contract . All codes also had sections regulating free blacks , which are controls on their movements and employment and were required to leave the state after emancipation .
( http://innercity.org/holt/slavechron.html )
Intermarriage between Slave and Free
In 1681 the legislature of Maryland passed a new act to relieve the evils of intermarrying of whites and blacks. The precedence recited that such matches were often brought about by the fomentation or connivance of the master or mistress , who took benefit of the former law to prolong the servitude of their white feminine servants, and at the same time to shake up a brood of mulatto slaves. The new law enacted that all white feminine servants intermarrying with Negro slaves were free, at once, after the hymeneals, and their children also; and that the minister celebrating and the master or mistress promoting or conniving at such marriages were subjected to a fine of ten thousand pounds of tobacco.
Rules for Slaves
In 1682 the slave code of Virginia received additions. It was enacted that blowouts who rejected to be arrested might be lawfully killed. Slaves were prohibited to carry arms, offensive or defensive, or to go off the plantations of their masters without a written pass, or to lift a hand against a Christian, even in self-protection. The condition of slavery was imposed upon all servants, whether “black moor, Moors, mulattoes, or Indians, brought into the colony by sea or land, whether born-again to Christian, or not, provided they were not of Christian parentage or country, or, if Turks or Moors, in amity with his Majesty.” Nearly a century afterwards Virginia tried to subdue the traffic in African slaves, and in 1761 it was proposed in her legislature to stamp down the importation of Africans by levying a propitiatory duty. Danger to the political interest of that settlement was foreboded by her wisest men in the continuance of the trade. An act for imposing the tax was passed by the Fabrication, but in England it met the fate of similar bills from other colonies to subdue the villainous traffic. It was sent back with a disallow.
King George Orders that Slavery not be Abolished in the Colonies
The King in council, on December 10, 1770, issued an instruction, under his own hand, dictating the governor of Virginia, “upon pain of the highest discomfort, to assent to no law by which the importation of slaves should be in any respect prohibited or obstructed. IN 1772 the Virginia Fabrication earnestly discussed the question, “How shall we get rid of the great evil?” Jefferson, Henry, Lee, and other leading men anxiously desired to rid the colony of it. “The interest of the country,” it was said, “obviously requires the total exclusion of them.” The fabrication finally resolved to address the King himself on the subject, who, in council, had compelled the sufferance of the traffic. They pleaded with him to remove all constraint upon their efforts to stop the importation of slaves, which they called “a very pernicious commerce.” In this matter Virginia represented the persuasion of all the colonies, and the King knew it; but the monarch “stood in the path of humanity and made himself the column of the colonial slave-trade.” Ashamed to deny the earnest and grave appeal of the Virginians, he evaded a reply. The conduct of the King caused Jefferson to write as follows in his first draft of the Declaration of Independence: “He has wagd cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and autonomy in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, capturing and carrying them into slavery in another places, or to get a miserable death in their transportation there. This piratical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the Christian King of Great Britain. Determined to keep open a market where men should be brought and sold, he has cocotte his negative for oppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce.
Racism in Today’s Society
Racism is always the serious problem in every country . Although it is 21st century , the racism problem still happened everywhere . Racism comes from different cultural values , ethnic backgrounds , as well as the physical appearances . The conflict of racism might occurred when the majority group feels that the different cultures and values of the minority group brings the deviance to the society . Racism have been one of the most significant issues that people have to face and fight for , and it is still occurring in our daily life such as in school .
Racism can kill a person without any notice . It could kill a person because it could hurt them and also discriminate them in many ways . For an example , the victims of racism were feel life is meaningless and then suicide or always think negatively .
Nowadays , there are so many kinds of people in our world and crimes are always happened around us . If we saw a black male standing on a corner at night , then we will think that he is in a gang and has intentions of committing various crimes . But sometimes , the black male is a good person but he looked like a bad guy . We could not determine a person by just looking his face or skin-colour . This is a kind of racism too .
Another example of us subliminally accepting racism is from the media . Two photographs from newspaper had reported that ‘One was of a black woman , wading through flood water and carried a bag full of food and case of pop . The article’s author described the picture as ‘a black woman who had just looted a local grocery store.’ The other photo showed a white couple , also wading through flood water and carried bag of food and a case of pop . But the author described it in other ways : ‘a white couple who had just found food from a local grocery store .’
( http://www.nextstepu.com/articlePage1.aspx?timeline=1&artId=2432 )
Causes of Racism
Racism is one of the most revolting things within the vicinity of humanity . Why does people racist ?? Where dose racism come from ?? There are many types of causes of racism , which are :
According to the dictionary.com, ‘stereotypes are as old as human culture itself.’ Through media , the potential for stereo types to build are a definite possibility . When a person , especially one that is very young , is exposed to stereotypes of a specific group for the first time , then that person will assume all are that way . If the person continue to join with a group and received many negative things , then it will affect the overall opinions of that person . For an example , parents taught their children racist other races , then the children will be racist other races although they know it is wrong .
( http://www.helium.com/items/236011-causes-of-racism )
Unfamiliarity is unusualness as a consequence of not being well known or strange to a specific thing . Another common cause of racism is unfamiliarity . If someone hasn’t grown up around a particular race before , then there are more chance that the person will racist other particular group . Person who has already been fed negative stereotypes , the chances of racism will be increased . For an example , children always feed negative stereotypes by parents and unfamiliarity with the things , then they will follow the negative stereotypes that their parents had taught them . So that , it is important for children to live around other races . Then , they will determine any false stereotypes that they had learnt about racism .
( http://www.helium.com/items/236011-causes-of-racism )
Ignorance meant the lack of knowledge or education . Now is 21st century , the racism problem must be keep decreasing and not increasing . Different races of people also regard as human being . Why should we need to be racist ? Are we so different ? Of course , NOT ! We are the same , we should not racist others except you are perfect in everything! Lacking of knowledge when it comes to another race is not something to be embarrassed but if despising other races without even making an attempt to discover them is shameful . Some people grow up in a place where there are no other races , and they are fed with negative stereotypes about other races . Then , when they meet other races , they have the potential to racist other races .
( http://www.helium.com/items/236011-causes-of-racism )
The Effect of Racism
American Prison Population
The effect of racism on the prison population is not bound to interactions only between prisoners. The prison administration encounters the wrath of racially charged prisoners daily, in difficulties ranging from rules violations to assaults on staff. The atmosphere of racial abhorrence spills over into every aspect of human contact in the life of a racist prisoner. The result of this being more criminal charges placed on the prisoner, loss of good behavior time, or an additional prison sentence resulting from a serious crime committed while constrained.
The effect on society as a whole resulting from prison racism is not of intellectual exploration for free people in general. However, the financial cost of prison allegory units, increased staffing needs including medical treatment resulting from violence and the extended housing costs of prisoners receiving additional time are diminishing funds allocated for amendment. The consequence is the propagation of the prison culture and mentality, any hope of behavior reform lost.
After release from the prison, many offenders have massive difficulty assimilating back into mainstream society due to personal views of race relations. Their ability to function productively is overpowered by the animus within that they cannot runaway. While racism in prison is tolerated to an extent within the prison population, it is a culture shock when discovering society had progressed beyond irrational fears and analogy of past generations.
Blacks had no power or money, and their fate lay in the white man’s hands, and usually they were sent to prisons. Normally, the prison was all-white run, but that was on the guard level. The blacks were the majority, and they controlled the prisoners. The blacks preyed on the weak whites, something they could not do on the outside world, but in there they were the power. They had their white punks, they raped white
Boys, and they extorted the weak white out of money from them and their families. It was protection.
The blacks would get together and scare a young white boy just about to the point where he wanted to kill himself, then a black man would come to his rescue. The white boy had no choice but to become a punk and let this black guy do as he wanted with him. He was part of the plot, but the white boy thought he was his hero. His family wanted him not to be hurt, so most would send money and white boy would give it all to his MAN-the black guy.
Prisons are broken down in a variety of ways, and one of those ways include being broken down by race. Prison has and will remain a breeding ground for racial issues; in other words racial tensions are able to play themselves out in prison. People began to notice their every difference instead of the deafening similarities when it comes to being oppressed in a system that ushers in through the revolving door.
In prison people separate themselves and float closer to people that best resembles them. This is usually done according to race and gang affiliations if any. Living in prison is about survival, because most people die while in prison; the goal is to live.
How race is viewed and treated in prisons will spill over into the general population upon release and that is the sad reality. Instead of promoting these types of behaviours and beliefs, prison should serve the purpose of working to rehabilitate the inmates so they can become productive members of society. Eliminating racism and prejudice on all levels is key, but it does not happen at the prison level; but in essence is left unchecked. Issues have occurred in California, where inmates were separated by race. This shows the growing uncertainty and uncomfortable ness in dealing with race and it calls into question whether or not we really know how to deal with it.
Race is extensively used in police profiling, which refers to the use of individuals’ features to view them as suspects of crimes. Majority of police officers view members of the black and other non-white communities as suspects of major crimes such as drug trafficking. In such cases, colour makes members of the minority communities to be eligible for committing such crimes. It is therefore not uncommon to see police officers arresting individuals just because of suspecting them of committing crimes even when they are innocent. For members of the minority communities, “guilty until proven innocent” is the rule that governs them.
The racial disproportionate prison population is not only caused by police profiling but also by unfair criminal and punishment policies. The War on Drugs for instance, is seen by many not as a war against illicit drugs but as a war against the black community. Many blacks have ended behind bars and suffered severe punishment due to this War and its accompanying racial differential policies such as the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1998. According to this Act, individuals convicted of possessing and dealing in powder cocaine receive a lesser punishment than individuals convicted of possessing and dealing in crack cocaine.
The mandatory minimum sentence meted against individuals dealing in 50 grams of crack cocaine is ten years while the same mandatory minimum sentence is meted against individuals dealing in 5000 grams of powder cocaine. Racism plays an active role in this racial differential Act because most individuals arrested for crack cocaine-related charges are predominantly Black whereas majority of individuals arrested for powder cocaine-related crimes are predominantly White. As a result, blacks suffer harsher punishments than their white counterparts despite committing a similar crime.
Racism significantly impacts inmates convicted of homicide in a number of ways. The race of the homicide victim, perpetrator, jurors, defendants and prosecutors play significant roles in determining the kind of sentences that will be passed to convicted murders. Research shows that in states where capital punishment is legal, the punishment is more frequently used in cases where the victim of a homicide is White than when the victim is Black or a member of other minority communities. In addition, capital punishment is used more often when the perpetrator of a homicide is a member of a minority group than when he or she is White.
The effect of racism on the prison population can only be minimized if participation of members of the minority communities in the criminal justice system is increased. This will provide minorities with equal protection and defence as that offered to the whites.
Solution for Racism
People have been talking racism for centuries. People continue to be racists. How do we solve this problem. Everybody has dealt with it, politicians, spiritual leaders, community activities, and the problems of racism continue. First, we have to admit that racism is a problem and that it’s a psycho-social problem. But racists are like alcoholics. In Alcoholics Anonymous and Gamblers Anonymous, first the people have to admit they have a problem. Admit they are out of control alcoholics, admit they are out of control gamblers before they can solve the problem. The problem with racism and racialism is that everybody denies it. Everybody is in denial. There are many ways to solve the racism:
We can debate racial issues without fear of being publicly and permanently denounced as racist. For an example, we can discuss this problem at school with teachers or friends or parents. This solution can help us to know further information about racism. Another solution is it’s accepted that all races are capable of both tolerance and bigotry. We believe that character, not skin colour, makes