Definition of Terrorism
Terrorism means the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence to create terror, or fear, to achieve a political, religious or ideological aim. Terrorism is a system of frightening people, to make them do what the terrorists want. Terrorism is derived from the word “Terror” which means “extreme fear”. The persons who make atmosphere of extreme fear among masses are called terrorists. Such type of activities is called terrorism. The aim of a terrorist is to spread terror among people.
They kill those persons or officials who oppose their evil deeds. Thus they create an atmosphere of terror to suit their designs.
Terrorism is defined as political violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is designed to induce terror and psychic fear (sometimes indiscriminate) through the violent victimization and destruction of noncombatant targets (sometimes iconic symbols). The purpose of terrorism is to exploit the media in order to achieve maximum attainable publicity as an amplifying force multiplier in order to influence the targeted audience in order to reach short- and midterm political goals and/or desired long-term end states.
History of Terrorism
The Irish Republican Brotherhood was one of the earliest organizations to use modern terrorist tactics. The term is defined, the roots and practice of terrorism can be traced at least to the 1st-century AD.Sicarii Zealots, though some dispute whether the group, a radical offshoot of the Zealots which was active in Judaea Province at the beginning of the 1st century AD, was in fact terrorist. According to the contemporary Jewish-Roman historian Josephus, after the Zealotry rebellion against Roman rule in Judea, when some prominent Jewish collaborators with Roman rule were killed,Judas of Galilee formed a small and more extreme offshoot of the Zealots, the Sicarii, in 6 AD. Their terror was also directed against Jewish “collaborators”, including temple priests, Sadducees, Herodians, and other wealthy elites.
In January 1858, Italian patriot Felice Orsini threw three bombs in an attempt to assassinate French Emperor Napoleon III. Eight bystanders were killed and 142 injured. The incident played a crucial role as an inspiration for the development of the early terrorist groups. Arguably the first organization to utilize modern terrorist techniques was the Irish Republican Brotherhood,founded in 1858 as a revolutionary Irish nationalist group that carried out attacks in England.The group initiated the Fenian dynamite campaign in 1881, one of the first modern terror campaigns.Instead of earlier forms of terrorism based on political assassination, this campaign used modern, timed explosives with the express aim of sowing fear in the very heart of metropolitan Britain, in order to achieve political gains.
Another early terrorist group was Narodnaya Volya, founded in Russia in 1878 as a revolutionary anarchist group inspired by Sergei Nechayev and “propaganda by the deed” theorist Carlo Pisacane. The group developed ideas such as targeted killing of the ‘leaders of oppression’—that were to become the hallmark of subsequent violence by small non-state groups, and they were convinced that the developing technologies of the age such as the invention of dynamite, which they were the first anarchist group to make widespread use of enabled them to strike directly and with discrimination.
Types of Terrorism
- Civil disorder – A form of collective violence interfering with the peace, security, and normal functioning of the community.
- Political terrorism – for political purposes, Violent criminal behavior designed primarily to generate fear in the community, or substantial segment of it.
- Non-Political terrorism – That is not at political purposes but which exhibits “conscious design to create and maintain a high degree of fear for coercive purposes, but the end is individual or collective gain rather than the achievement of a political objective”.
- Quasi-terrorism – The activities of crimes of violence that are similar in form and method to genuine terrorism. It is not the main purpose of the quasi-terrorists to induce terror in the immediate victim as in the case of genuine terrorism, but the quasi-terrorist uses the modalities and techniques of the genuine terrorist and produces similar consequences and reaction. For example, the fleeing felon who takes hostages is a quasi-terrorist, whose methods are similar to those of the genuine terrorist but whose purposes are quite different.
- Limited political terrorism – Genuine political terrorism is characterized by a revolutionary approach; limited political terrorism refers to “acts of terrorism which are committed for ideological or political motives but which are not part of a concerted campaign to capture control of the state”.
- Official or state terrorism – it is refer to nations whose rule is based upon fear and oppression that reach similar to terrorism or such proportions”. It may also be referred to as Structural Terrorism defined broadly as terrorist acts carried out by governments in pursuit of political objectives, often as part of their foreign policy.
These are some other types:
- Political terrorism
- Sub-state terrorism
- Social revolutionary terrorism
- Nationalist-separatist terrorism
- Religious extremist terrorism
- Religious fundamentalist Terrorism
- New religions terrorism
- Right-wing terrorism
- Left-wing terrorism
- State-sponsored terrorism
- Regime or state terrorism
- Criminal terrorism
- Pathological terrorism
Motivations of terrorists
The perpetrators of acts of terrorism can be individuals, groups, or states. However, the most common image of terrorism is that it is carried out by small and secretive cells, highly motivated to serve a particular cause and many of the most deadly operations in recent times, such as the September 11 attacks, the London underground bombing, 2008 Mumbai attacks and the 2002 Bali bombing were planned and carried out by a close clique, composed of close friends, family members and other strong social networks. These groups benefited from the free flow of information and efficient telecommunications to succeed where others had failed.
Terrorism in Pakistan
It has become a major and highly destructive phenomenon in recent years. The annual rate of death toll from terrorist attacks has risen from 164 in 2003 to 3318 in 2009,with a total numbers of 35,000 Pakistanis killed between 11 September 2001 and May 2011.The direct and indirect economic costs of terrorism from 2000–2010 is total $68 billion according to the government of Pakistan.
Terrorism in Pakistan originated with supporting the Soviet war in Afghanistan, and the subsequent civil war that continued for at least a decade. The conflict had broughten numerous fighters from all over the world to South Asia in the name of jihad. These mujahideen fighters are trained by American CIA, Pakistan’s military and other western intelligence agencies who carried out insurgent activities inside Afghanistan well after the war officially ended. Gen Raheel shareef, Former Pakistan’s army chief, accused longtime regional rival India, focused on Pakistan, to build an economic corridor to transport goods from China’s western regions through Pakistan of seeking to undermine his country’s $46 billion Gawader project. alThough, it is not uncommon for Pakistan and India to accuse one another on all troublesome issues.
Today, terrorism is a world-wide problem ranging from aircraft hijacking, planting of bombs in air craft’s, brutal killing of opponents and innocent people by the terrorists are heard every day from far and near. It is often seen that terrorist groups whether in India or Sri Lanka or elsewhere in the world, receive money, weapons and training from other foreign countries. These terrorists have unlimited access to sophisticated weapons. They believe that the highest form of revolutionary terrorism should utilize the most advanced science and technology.
Terrorism is the main problem of our country this time. Steps should be taken to tackle the situation peacefully. The people involved in it are mostly our own people, our own blood. They have some misconceptions and misunderstandings. These can be solved by getting them on the negotiation table. Several steps are now taken all over the world to control these activities like establishment of anti-terrorist forces to battle terrorism. The countries like Britain, Russia, and Germany have their own anti-terrorist forces. India has also established such forces to fight to terrorism. The police and sundry Para military forces have been present in certain areas of the country where violence is at worst. India has not taken steps to check the terrorism in her own country but also helped her neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka to fight them.
Causes of Terrorism:
- Socio-Economic Causes
- Poverty and Unemployment
- Food Insecurity
- Non-Democratic Set-Up
- Improper Government Set-Up
- Absence of Law And Failure Of Law Enforcement Agencies
- Afghan War: 1979
- Iranian Revolution
- War On Terrorism: 9/11
Factors Boosting Terrorism
- Anti-Terrorism Campaign and Drone Strikes
- Negligence of Government
- Persecution of Innocent Muslims In Kashmir And Palestine