3.6 Method of Data CollectionThe study will use existing literature and questionnaire as the research instruments to gather information on the subject matter. They are to be used to get a clear view of the present and also to reveal future projections. Essentially, adequate knowledge of the current scenario is necessary for forecasting future happenings. Preference for the use of questionnaire was considered because of its ability to reach a large number of respondents and gather adequate information within a short period of time at a reasonable cost.
Also, it offers the respondents the comfort of being anonymous.3.6.1 Primary Data CollectionPrimary data is sort for by the researcher for the purpose of addressing the issue at hand. Therefore, the primary data for the research will be collected mainly from questionnaires. The perspectives and opinions from the respondents will enable the researcher get the desired qualitative information which will provide a very thorough insight of the discussed subject. Other tools for the collection of primary data may be utilized like email responses, conversations on the internet, opinion polls etc.
3.6.2 Secondary Data CollectionSecondary data is going to be collected as a prerequisite for the primary data collection. The secondary data collected will assist in providing necessary background information about the research at hand. The data will be gathered from resources available from the Bowen University library, online resources, academic and non-academic journals, websites and archives, newspaper publications will be useful as well. The supposed gathered information will be critically analyzed and reviewed to add to the collection of already researched literature and data that has been analyzed. 3.6.3 QuestionnaireFrom the observed literature reviewed, a questionnaire was created in an attempt to enhance the analysis of the data collected upon the completion of the questionnaires. The target pool is mainly Nigerians who possess basic or further knowledge of the workings of the country. Open ended questions and Likert scale questions were used in the questionnaire. The primary distribution tool used for the questionnaire was a web-based tool called Survey Monkey which can be linked to social media such as Facebook for effective distribution.The questionnaire has six (6) parts, designated A to F, with Section A consisting the welcome message to the respondents as well as contact details of the researcher.Section B: This section consists of eight (8) questions on respondents’ personal data that is relevant to the study such as gender, age, nationality, location, occupation etc.Section C: This section contains seven (7) items which address respondents’ understanding of corruption & economic development. Respondents are to evaluate each item according to the degree to which they agree, using the Likert scale, ranging from Strongly Agree (5) to Strongly Disagree (1), with the exception being question 13, which uses a different range. Section D: This section presents a question to the respondents on what they perceive to be the cause(s) of corruption in Nigeria. It offers options such as income & wealth, inequality, lack of transparency etc., with room for respondents’ opinion on the causes of corruption. Section E: This section contains five (5) items which address respondents’ knowledge of governments’ attempts to address corruption in Nigeria. Respondents are to evaluate each item according to the degree to which they agree, using the Likert scale, ranging from Strongly Agree (5) to Strongly Disagree (1).Section F: This section contains six (6) items which address respondents’ knowledge of anti-corruption measures in Nigeria. Respondents are to evaluate each item according to the degree to which they agree, using the Likert scale, ranging from Strongly Agree (5) to Strongly Disagree (1), with the exception being Question 25, which uses a different range (Very Effective to Not Effective at all), and Question 27, which is an open-ended question to get respondents’ opinion of the term corruption.3.7 Reliability & Validity of Research InstrumentReliability refers to the consistency of s measure, while Validity, is the extent to which the scores from a measure represent the variable they are intended to (Price, Jhangiani & Chiang, 2019). The questionnaire was validated and scrutinised through the opinion of experts in the study field as well as the supervisor of the research, to ensure it measures the appropriate variables and required objectives of the research. Their opinion, observations and recommendations were duly effected in the questionnaire. 3.8 Measurement of VariablesCorruption is the independent variable while economic development is the dependent variable in this study. In measuring corruption, surveys are the most efficient way of gathering data required for its measurement. Survey of firms & households, commercial bank information, as well as data from NGOs & GOVs, business executives etc., are primary indicators for measurement. In measuring the dependent variable economic development, GDP & GNP would be measured seeing as they are the primary indicators used to gauge the health of a country’s economy (Kramer, 2019). Lastly, it should be noted that a nominal scale of measurement classifies cases into categories that have no quantitative ordering while Ordinal scale allows cases to be ordered by degree according to measurement of variable. 3.9 Data Analysis TechniquesThe proposed study would analyze both qualitative and quantitative data. For the quantitative data, returned copies of the questionnaire as well as online responses would be edited to check for and minimize errors coded for analysis. The data would be processed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics such as frequency table and charts will be used to present respondents personal data while inferential statistics such as Pearson correlation and simple linear regression through the application of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20) will also be used to present the data.For hypothesis testing, Best & Kaha (2002), noted that selection of statistical test tools to be used depend on the research hypotheses to be tested. Thus, hypotheses will be tested using the Pearson correlation, which is a measure of the degree of association between two variables that are both measured in either the interval or ratio scale. Its value ranges from -1.0 to +1.0, with bigger absolute values indicating stronger relationships; the sign denotes the direction of association. A positive correlation indicates that as one variable increases, the other also goes up; while a negative correlation denotes that as one variable increases, the other correspondingly goes down. Pearson is most appropriate when trying to establish any relationship between corruption and economic development.