Growth and development:In humans, growth is the process of increasing in size; weight and height (mostly a physical change), Growth takes time and it doesn’t happen all of a sudden, people don’t reach their full height until early adulthood. Whereas development means the process of developing progressive acquisition of skills and abilities which often lead to a positive change or an improvement in our lives. Humans develop physically, intellectually, emotionally and socially as they become older and more experienced.
Development never stops we always keep developing however, in the early life stages development happens at a much faster rate in comparison to when we get in to the stage of older adulthood when it starts to slow down. Growth and development is put into life stages which are differentiated by age and key stages of scientifically psychomotor development. Psychomotor development is the attainment of both mental and muscular (motor) activity. Motor skills are functions which involve precise movement of muscles to perform specific actions.
They are divided into two types there are two types such as fine motor skills and gross motor skills. Fine motor skills involve smaller muscles for example in our hands that give us the ability to make precise movements that significantly influence the quality of the task done e.g. writing and using cutlery. And gross motor skills involve larger muscles which move our legs and arms to give us the capability of walking, jumping, kicking etc. Mastering both fine and motor skills also helps the children with cognitive development. Growth begins on cellular level before conception and continues without stopping throughout life until death although most development occurs in the life stages of infancy ,early childhood and adolescence.In total there are nine life stages of which six of them are the main ones: Prenatal Development (conception – birth) Infancy (birth-2 years) Early Childhood (3-8 years) Middle Childhood Adolescence (9-18 years) Early Adulthood (19-45 years) Middle Adulthood (46-65 years) Late Adulthood (65+ years) Death and DyingTo assess development and specific characteristics of a life stage we use PIES is an acronym which stands for physical, intellectual, emotional and social development- these four areas of development make up a whole person. It is important to remember that development in PIES does not happen separately they are strongly linked and without one or another growth and development cannot occur. PIES:Physical development: Describes physical growth patterns and changes in the body (puberty, loss of muscle or skin elasticity), also divided into fine motor and gross motor skills which change the mobility of large and small muscles in the body.Intellectual development: Describes how people learn and develop their thinking skills (logic and problem solving),memory (remembering and recognising things) and linguistic abilities (communication through speech and writing) which help individuals make sense of the world.Emotional development: Learning and understanding what feeling and emotions are and why they happen, as well as recognising one’s own feeling for or about other people, situations and experiences with the ability to develop effective ways of managing them. It also helps people with developing and finding out their true identity and being confident when being yourself ” good self-concept.Social development: Forming relationships and friendships by socialising and having good communication skills and developing social skills such as manners and following the rules and norms of the society without further problems.Early Childhood (3-8 years) Early childhood is a stage of tremendous and remarkable growth across all areas of development. It is a life stage of rapid change in which children gain experience and knowledge of the wider world through the influence of the surrounding environment, and the people they are surrounded by, mainly by exploration and questioning everything on their paths. Childhood is the building block upon which adolescence and ,later, adulthood will be built so therefore its one of the key life stages in our lives. Physical Development:Early childhood is the life stage where many physical developmental milestones are reached. Although, growth occurs at a much slower and steadier pace in comparison to the first two years of the child’s physical development in the life stage of infancy, children continuously make great progress in attaining new vital skills for everyday tasks such as being able to independently dress themselves or having good control, coordination and balance when walking and running. At this point of physical development children’s growth and body mass keeps increasing but not as rapidly as when they were in their first life stage. In order to make sure the child reaches its physical milestones when needed and to the highest and fullest potential it’s very important to encourage the development of motor skills (both fine and gross motor skills) which will maximise the precision and accuracy of specific activities and tasks. For example, drawing or doing other forms of creative, visual art encourages the development of fine motor skills as the child is learning and practising the use of tools such as crayons, pens, pencils which will not only help them master the ability to draw but will also strengthen their grip which will be helpful with other activities such as using cutlery. It is very crucial to give kids the choice of experiencing and trying out new things like allowing them to feed themselves as it not only improves their motor skills but also teaches them independence and manual dexterity (coordinated hand and finger movements to grasp objects) and hand-eye coordination.