Theory of Career Guidance and Counseling
Career is a unique endeavor which is built from childhood. Most of the people fulfill their career dreams after college education when they get to jobs along the line of their profession. Reed and Warmer-Rogers indicates that after one has secured a position, the careers become stressful and fulfilling the goals and objectives of the occupation is difficult. Therefore, people tend to struggle to shift in their employment with the aim of getting to a favorable employment opportunity. This paper describes a career transition basing the facts to a video with the theme of a career transition. Two characters are picked and described regarding a career theory.
Besides, the paper offers three career counseling sessions. The movie chosen is The Devil Wears Prada. The film is all about a young fresh graduate female who travels to New York to find a job along the line of the profession. The woman lands a job, and problems follow her after that. She is not a happy person during the work sessions. The main character is the woman called Andrea Sachs. Besides, the supporting role is Lily who is also a best friend to Andrea. Lily fails to land a job and coverts to heavy drinking as she goes out with cheap women. The characters of the two ladies are described using the career theory of Holland’s Theory of Vocational Characters in Labor Environment.
Holland’s Theory of Occupational Characters in Work Setting
The theory by Holland has developed a career awareness valuation globally. The method by Holland offers a simple to understand the framework that explains that career interests and settings are essential during career counseling and development (Spokane, 2017).
Pronk & Harrison, 1998 indicates that Holland develops six typologies that could be used to describe one’s personality and vocational interest. These typologies include Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, and Enterprising as well as conventional. If an individual’s degree of closeness to the six vocational personality and attention categories could be evaluated, then it is conceivable to produce a three-letter code (e.g., SIA, RIA) to signify and sum-ups one’s vocation attentiveness.
Spokane, Luchetta, & Richwine, 2017 indicates that the first letter of the code is the primary of a personal attention variety, which will probably play a significant role in career choice and satisfaction (Meier, 2010). Second and third characters are subordinate interest topics and theaters a slighter but still important role in the career select procedure. Contrary to classification of types of business concern, Holland records that the business environment can be arranged in the same typography. In the vocation select and improvement course, individuals are searching for an environment that allows them to use their expertise and aptitudes and definite their arrogances and standards. In a specified business setting, it tends to shape it; its characteristics are similar to those of the major ones, and, which are different from the major types, can feel unsuccessful and dissatisfied. The concept of “Congruence” is used by Holland to show the status of the person-environment interaction.
Dillon & Weissman, 2018 describe that the type of person’s nature and the type of attention and the primary functions of the environment are likely to be professional satisfaction and stability. The degree of low correspondence is expected to cause discontent and unpredictability commercially. In one’s atmosphere organizational perspective, the theory of Holland is similar to the model of TWA correspondence. Six Holland concern typologies RISEC is organized to take the form of a hexagon in the coke sequence shape, and the networks amid the forms in the context of equality and inequalities are depicted from a distance between the same kinds in the hexagon. The theory of sustainability is used in the form of “interior congruence, an idea of a person’s type or coordination.
The character of Andrea Sachs as depicted in Holland’s Theory of Occupational Characters in Work Setting
According to Holland, people chose to work in an environment that fist their personality types. Andrea moves to New York City after she had graduated at Brown University to seek for the employment opportunity along the line of the profession she had pursued in her first bachelor’s degree (Brown & Lent, 2012). The environment of New York plays an essential role in the career life of Andrea because it the type of the occupation of that is required is found within the city. The environment plays a vital role in the personality of Andrea. Andrea has studied English and had the potential of publishing. The New York City is the environment with the most significant number of publishing industries. The personality of Andrea fits the city because the city can offer vacancies of developing a career to Andrea.
Additionally, Andrea is invited to an interview and finally lands a job at Elias-Clark Group as an editor-chief of the Fashion Magazine runway. Andrea managed to pass the interview because of the personality she had. Andrea had a relevant qualification based on the requirement of the job she landed. In this situation, the issue of environment plays an essential role in development career of Andrea because they have decided to choose the position according to their qualifications. Moreover, Andrea attends a celebrity party and meets Christian Collinsworth a person who they share with a personality of writing. The duo gets attracted to each other which complicates the relationship between Andrea and her boyfriend, Alex.
Holland’s theory indicates that people should love, friendly and understanding. From the movie, Andrea has a best friend Lily whom they move with to the city to seek employment. Having the best friend is a sign of socialization indicating that one is social. Moreover, Andrea has the personality of socializing because she has built a new relationship with Christian.
Conversely, the work that Andrea does has created a negative relationship between her and her family members. Andrea also develops a negative association with Miranda. Furthermore, she ends up throwing abuses to Miranda. The new relationship that she developed with Christian destroys Andrea’s relationship with the boyfriend, Alex. She learns that her best friend Lily is involved in a road accident over the phone from a distant friend. However, after sometime she realized that the family relationship was essential as compared to the working relationship with others. Ranking the social life of Andrea, one would regard it as inferior because she has a weak correlation with people at different points in life. The poor social development and negative behavior while getting along with others made her lose her job.
Holland’s theory suggests the personality of enterprising. This means that one should be ambitious and energetic. Andrea is determined after completing the studies. The determination takes her to the city, and the makes him drop her curriculum vitae close to all the offices that she can land a job. Finally, she falls a job because of her enterprising character.
The character of Lily Sachs as depicted in Holland’s Theory of Occupational Characters in Work Setting
Lily is the best friend of the main character, Andrea. Lily was a graduate student from the University of Columbia (Movieclips, 2017). She accompanied Andrea to New York City purposely to land a job. However, her ways did not work in the city and did not land any job. Therefore, Lily became frustrated in her life and ended in drug abuse.
Moreover, she also picked cheap men to spend with her. The career of Lily is not explicitly described. However, when the character of Lily is associated with Holland’s theory of vocational personalities in work environments, one would deduce the following.
First, Lily is not a social lady. She hardly takes time to share with others about her problems and stress. Once life has become hard to her in the city, she resorts to excess drinking of alcohol. Besides, she is also spending with dubious men. The much she is going through is luck of employment despite her excellent education. The miserable life of Lily makes her fall into a serious road accident that lives her in a comma.
Secondly, Lily is not artistic. Lily went to the city at the same time with Andrea. However, she is not aggressive in looking for opportunities nor is she creative to develop a business mind that can assist her in running of the business. Moreover, Lily is not investigative which is a personality trait evolved in the Holland theory. She fails to use the analytical and complex skills to gain insight on the activities she should get involved in earning a living. Additionally, Lily is not conventional because of her inability to organize her finances because he uses most of her money in drinking. Lastly, Lily can be classified as not enterprising. This is because she does not have any ambitions and assertive in his life because he has spent a lot of her time while jobless.
Career counseling Modalities
Different models have been used in career counseling and guidance. The career guidance starts from the tender age once the children start reasoning and admire the life they would like to take at adulthood. The most effective models used in the guidance and counseling of the people who are having career issues like Andrea and Lily is A Centric Career Counseling Model (Amundson, 2018). The model was developed explicitly for employment counseling. The approaches take accounts for dimensions like psychological, economic as well as social factors.
According to Erick Digest as quoted by Amundson, the centric model takes four developmental phases. The phase usually takes the following functions. These four phases are described as follows. The first is readiness or the establishment of the working alliance. At the working alliance stage, the counselor plays a primary role in improving the condition of counseling. The client should get prepared before the actual counseling process begins. Therefore, both the physical and interpersonal climate must be favorable among the client and counselor. Assessment is conducted to identify the readiness of the client and a positive relationship in the work environment. All the conditions at this stage should prevail which provides the requirements for proceeding to the next step. For example, it is required that the unemployed should normalize their experiences with unemployment before any form of assessment.
The second procedure is a career survey and valuation. At this stage, different domains are considered, but the specific ones are personal and external. The individual factors are values, interest, skills, and limitations as well as personal styles. The counselor should encourage the clients to develop information of dynamic own elements. The external domains include work and leisure, educational backgrounds. This would assist in identifying the past experiences of the person. The third step is the evaluation, integration, and compromise. Once the assessment is done, there is a need to draw the information together and evaluate the variability of various options. The agreements might be used to introduce new mythology and tradition. For example, once one has made a career choice, the person remains committed to a career. The decision made should be fulfilling and correct choice of a career grants total life happiness.
The last procedure in the centric career counseling model is a commitment, action planning and making the follow-ups. During this stage, the clients have made up their minds, and they can move effectively. Moreover, the clients are willing to make a move based guidance. Therefore, the counselor should encourage the clients to forget about the past and focus on the present and future in their activities.
Both Andrea and Lily would go to counseling station to seek guidance on the conflict and the uneasiness that develop as a result of career. Andrea would seek guidance on how to have peace at work and maintain the friends and family. On the other hand, Lily would present the case of not getting any employment even after graduating from college. The guidance and counseling would assist all of them to stabilize their emotions that come from the functional area. They will go through the Centric Career Counseling Model.
How to proceed in three career counseling sessions
The three career counseling sessions start with the subjects. The people with career problems are come to report their case. The case is listened to depending on the circumstances and conditions that underlie the case. The second step involves the setting of the tools (Walsh & Osipow, 2014). The people need to have the tools that are used to guide people with career problem issues. The last stage is the evaluation and plan. The counselor should evaluate the conditions of the clients and make recommendations as well as providing the tools of the assessment.
Applying the stages to Andrea and Lily
Andrea’s main problem is socialization. Andrea should report to the organization that does counseling. Andrea would be assigned a counselor who would take him through the procedures of identifying the areas that have caused trouble in the life of Andrea during the occupation. The counselor would have the opportunity to guide based on the information that they give that comes from the client. Once the guidance is done, an evaluation should take place effectively to ensure that the client was satisfied. The client should also be given the opportunity to assess whether the counseling conditions are efficient and effective in a positive change of life.
One would recommend that the practice of career guidance should also be done effectively at the tender age and even to those who are also working in the organization. The children should be guided to have the ability to identify the career that fits them. However, the adults who have completed studies in specific professions need to be conducted on how to seek employment opportunities while others are also frustrated as a result of work. Each who comes for counseling on the career development must come up with the solution to their frustrations. Generally, one would conclude that career guidance and advice is essential to the people who are frustrated as a result of a career.
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Walsh, W. B., & Osipow, S. H. (2014). Career Counseling: Contemporary Topics in Vocational Psychology. Routledge.