. You now know that leadership is more than just a set of traits. However, personal characteristics, including personality, do matter. What personal characteristics do you think matter most in leadership? Which ones detract from leadership effectiveness? 2. Explain briefly the difference between transactional and transformational. How do leaders effectively use transformational leadership to build relationships with employees? What specific approaches might you employ to improve your skills towards transformational leadership? 3.Describe the elements of charismatic leadership. 4. What are the cultural constraints on the development of charismatic leadership? 5. How is management by exception different from empowerment? 6. Describe the elements of transactional leadership. 7. What role does creativity play in leadership? 8. What are the major contributions and shortcomings of the neo-charismatic approaches to our understanding of leadership?

Question 1

Every institution has its way of understanding the personal traits that make an individual the best head of its operations; however, honest leaders typically encourages not only through their words but also through their actions. A legitimate leader understands that dynamic leadership is centered on trust and honesty in administration generates an active team dynamic. Also, in any surrounding of personal scrutiny, openness is one significant character essential in leadership and can be used to examine a person. It typically reflects how to open one is too modern experiences and how imaginative and creative the person can be when it comes to leadership (Lindegaard, 2010). A good leader should practice conscientiousness as it is a measure of how organized, inventive, and forward-thinking a person is. Efficient leaders are typically organized in every operation, both in individual levels and when it pertains their groups. Ego is one personal trait that detracts from effective leadership as a leader should be ready to accept blame when things are not right.

Question 2

Leadership is considered as a character of influencing the behavior of a person or people with the aim of achieving the set organizational goals and objectives. Several management experts have discovered some leadership theories regarding behavior, personality, and nature. Transactional leadership is also known as management leadership is typically a leadership style that lays a firm emphasis on the transaction existing between a leader and his or her subordinate staff. On the other perspective, transformational leadership is that type where leaders operate with the subordinates with the aim of achieving a given change within the business (McCleskey, 2014). Transformational leadership typically plays a significant role in coming up with a conducive learning environment within the company and also empowers workers to fulfill the set organizational goals and objectives. Transformational leaders can also allow more prominent industries to respond to the alterations occurring within the external surrounding efficiently and create necessary changes with the aim of building a sustained leaning workplace within more prominent businesses. Transformational leadership requires constant seek of decision from employees and other related stakeholders as an approach to enhancing skills towards this kind of leadership.

Question 3

According to Levay, C. (2010), charismatic leaders possess qualities which are typically hard to pin down; however, they attract several followers and inspire people to accomplish a given task. Charismatic leaders have an exceptional skill in communication that is essential in motivating workers to go through tough occasions and also assist them in staying grounded when things are not right. Also, these people have a strong sense of maturity and character as they do in believe in empty showmanship and thus draw on their knowledge and intelligence that they have accumulated over the past years. Charismatic leaders also have a strong sense of humility as they put a lot of concern and value on every worker and have the aptitude to focus on addressing their concerns honestly.

Question 4

Various cultures have different believes when it comes to the conception of the most significant features of charismatic leadership, and this can typically affect the growth of charismatic leadership. In some given cultures, a person might be required to have a healthy and decisive character to be viewed as a real leader while in some societies, consultation and a democratic approach may be considered to be the most preferred technique to exercising effective leadership. Many characteristics associated with charismatic leadership in some cultures are viewed to be as a contributing factor to useful guidance; however, the word “charisma” instills ambivalences in numerous countries (Levay, 2010). There is a concern in some cultures that individuals tend to lose their balance and intelligence as a result of too much concentration on achievements created by charismatic leaders. Therefore, these are some of the cultural constraints on the growth of charismatic leadership.

Question 5

Management by exception is a type of worker empowerment and management style, plan or philosophy where the executives intervene only when the workers fail to fulfill their performance set standards or when things are not right. The primary intention behind this type of management is that it will focus only on areas that require prompt actions and more focus as compared to administration by empowerment where people consider various aspects of the business. If employees are carrying out their duties in an expected manner, the executive will not pay more concentration and also take no action (Harms & Credé, 2010). The main idea behind this type of management is that managers ought to only focus and spend their critical moments on significant, tactical and strategic operations. Empowerment, on the other hand, ensures constant monitoring of workers whether things are right or wrong.

Question 6

A transactional leader typically expects their followers to be compliant and maintain this through a technique of rewards and punishments. In this type leadership, the leader does not focus on transforming or enhancing the future; however, just wants every operation within the business to remain the same. Transactional leadership is strategically efficient when carried on projects that require being accomplished in a systematic and structured way (McCleskey, 2014). Some of the elements of this kind of leadership include extrinsic motivation where transactional leaders typically concentrate in eliciting the required performance from the group through motivating them externally. Practicality is another essential element of transactional leadership as these types of leaders use an approach to solving issues that are considered as pragmatism and also take into consideration all the available constraints and opportunities.

Question 7

In the ancient times, creativity was linked with individuals in artistic industries including writers, painters, and even the musicians. However, in the modern business set up, the significance of creativity in leadership has changed the nature of the business world. Creativity has become a significant tool in the business world in the effort to distinguish them from competitors in the business world. Described as the application of imagination or original perspective in the creation of something a majority of organizations leaders have acknowledged that creativity is significant for a business to grow and strive in meeting international standards. Creative leaders use unfamiliar techniques in their daily interactions with the team members and colleagues to achieve organizational set goals and objectives. They also put high stress on encouraging innovative ideas amongst others within the industry. Through incorporating meaningful and practical insight to issues and tasks, leaders maintain an artistic element that leads to higher productivity.

Question 8

The neo-charismatic leadership style typically operates with the process of change and strategically the change of followers (Levay, 2010). The process has charismatic and visionary perspectives which are usually understood as outlined in the characteristics and continuous sequences behavior of a leader. Leadership should be visionary and thus should change those who see the vision and give them the current and a strong sense of purpose and meaning; therefore, this approach of leadership is trying to separate charismatic direction from the “ordinary” leaders and the manner in which charismatic or transformational leaders. The syllable “neo” is typically a title that means, firstly, that this approach is advancing and is significant to organizations.



Harms, P. D., & Credé, M. (2010). Emotional intelligence and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies17(1), 5-17.

Levay, C. (2010). Charismatic leadership in resistance to change. The Leadership Quarterly21(1), 127-143.

Lindegaard, S. (2010). The open innovation revolution: essentials, roadblocks, and leadership skills. John Wiley & Sons.

McCleskey, J. A. (2014). Situational, transformational, and transactional leadership and leadership development. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly5(4), 117.

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