- You must submit your hardcopy assignment on LMS.Refer to the portal for instructions on the procedures to submit your assignment on-line. Your assignment must be submitted on or before
4 August 2017 (04/08/2017).
- This assignment should contain about 3500, – 5000, words, not including appendix and reference.
You are required to synthesize literature works on influence of personality on consumer behavior. Your assignment should have the following details:
- Introduction(15 marks)
Overview of the topic chosen.
- Literature Review(40 marks)
Although there is no definite format for a literature review section, a typical review generally includes the following discussions:
– The prevailing theories related to the study
– Recent and current research studies relevant to the study
– The gap between existing theories and research and the research under study
– Implications of those theories and research findings and how they provide justifications to your study
– Methodological issues related to the study
You are required to review journal articles that are directly related to personality on consumer behaviour. All these articles preferably from peer-reviewed journals.
- Discussion on how the chosen topic will affect consumer behaviour in Bahrain or Saudi Arabia(30 marks)
- References(15 marks)
References should adhere strictly to APA style. References cited in the proposal must appear in a Reference List and vice-versa.
This article aims at providing a real connection between the personality and the consumer behaviour. Therefore, the theories of personality are used to develop and explain the behaviour of the consumers. The relevance of the theories of personality connected to a particular response of consumers would, therefore, be significant for this study and review. To understand how personality influences the buying behaviour, there are primary areas that one needs to know. These include an elaborate understanding of personality. On the other hand, one needs to understand the buying behaviours and patterns of the consumers (Crossby, 2008). Additionally, the variables that affect and influence the purchasing ability of the users are also considered. Therefore, the paper dwells on the theories that explain behaviour and the reasons for behaviour.
The process of searching, purchasing and use as well as discarding of goods and services is common among consumers. Some factors push the consumers in determining what products as well as services they need (Crossby, 2008). These are called the consumer influences. These elements that affect the users include environment, culture, self-need and psychological status of an individual. The major factor that is influence the buying behaviour of a person is personality.
Personality can be defined as a consistent procedure through which an individual respond to a particular behaviour in the environment (Burger, 2014). To have a clear understanding of nature as well as the development of the dependable behaviour patterns and how the knowledge is useful to the understanding of the human relationship, it is important to rely on the scholarly articles in the field of psychology. Therefore, there are important theories that are used to explain the principles of the human development. These methods include the Psychodynamic theory, the humanistic theory, the psychoanalytic theory as we the trait theory and the social cognitive theory (Burger, 2014).
The complexity of personality appears in the approach that the study undertakes. The above-mentioned theories elaborate on how the subject matter is important and compound. The Psychodynamic theory explains that the interaction that is driven by instinct and unconscious forces that are possessed by individuals cause the personality differences (Burger, 2014). The trait theory elaborates that there are ranges of personality characteristics. Therefore, the character of a person varies from person to person because of the differences in the features.
On the other hand, the behavioural theory explains that the personality of an individual is influenced by the environment (Burger, 2014). Therefore, the outcome of human behaviour is as a result of the environment. The humanistic approach relies on the positive aspect of the human existence (Burger, 2014). Additionally, it is recognized with self-determination and the need for the self-actualization as the results of the differences of the personality of the people. The social cognitive theory postulates that the differences in personality are as a result of differences in the way people receive and send information.
In the past, the study of behaviour in the field of psychology was used correct disorders of individuals with psychological problems. However, currently, the study has got the inroads to the marketing sector (Raab, Goddard, & Unger, 2016). This is because of the inability of various variables like the culture, demography, and the social class to give a vivid description of the buying patterns and the behaviours of the consumers. Therefore, the marketers have decided to use psychology to explain how personality influences the buying behaviours of the people (Raab, Goddard, & Unger, 2016). The character studies in changing the habits of the buyers do not only answer the questions like ‘’ who buy? When to buy? What to buy? What to buy? However, it also is required in the market evaluation (Raab, Goddard, & Unger, 2016). Therefore, it is helpful in the development and assessment of the marketing strategies as well as meeting the needs and the wants of the consumers.
There are various sources and scholarly articles that explain personality on consumer behaviour. This paper focuses on theories that elaborate on personality and behaviour, and how the personality influences the behaviour of the buyers. The first section of this article, the principles that are related to personality and behaviour are addressed. The theories in this paper explain nature. The reasons as to why the people behave the way they do. The logical units in this section give to details the reasons why people have consistency in the behaviour patterns. There are a variety of the theories that are used to explain the personality. These are discussed in the article as follows considering the scholarly articles.
The first personality theory is the psychodynamic theory. The psychodynamic theory was engineered by Sigmund Freud (Munsaka, 2014). This approach is based on the argument that the character develops due to the interaction of the instinct and the unconscious forces within a person. The theory assumes that the human behaviour is driven by the unconscious mind. The behaviour is traceable to the childhood. On the other hand, the psychoanalytic theory also explains the personality (Engler, 2013). The method was also developed by Freud. It explains that the Instinctual drives in addition to the childhood experience are factors that contribute to the character development. The theory is based on a tripartite structure of the id, ego, and superego. The Id is the unconscious part of the reasoning. The Id is the stage from birth to the level at which one can start making conscious feelings. On the other hand, the Ego deals with the pleasure moments to an individual. An immediate gratification is needed to address the situation. Lastly, the superego deals with reality. This is where the only reasoning takes control. Only the moral actions are advocated with no obedience given to pleasure.
The Neo-Freudian theory also explains the personality. The theory agrees with the psychoanalytic theory. However, they add the section that explains that the chapter of the personality is developed at childhood experiences (Engler, 2013). The sex drive is the motivator of the personality development. Additionally, the Humanistic theory is also an approach to explaining personality. The humanistic theorists believe that the human goes to the right and they are wholly responsible for their behaviours. (Burger, 2005) explains that humanistic theory recognizes the responsibility and the feelings of self-acceptances as the primary causes of differences in personality.
Additionally, the trait theory also explains the personality. It elaborates that personality is made up of several characteristics that are quantitative and measurable units. These are also known as the traits. It is the tendency to adopt a particular behaviour when exposed to various situations. Therefore, the trait theory is also used to explain that personality is different from person to person because of the varied characters of individuals (Engler, 2013).
On the contrary, behavioural approaches are also necessary for the development of the characteristics of the people. The theory extrapolates that the personality of an individual is an outcome of the personal interaction factors and the environmental influences. The behaviourists believe that the mental states of a person are an empty slate at birth referred to as the ‘’tabula rasa (Engler, 2013).” Therefore, they found that the personality is acquired through the operant and classical conditioning learning. It is shaped with reinforcement which is in the form of rewards. On the other hand, the unwanted negative behaviour is removed through punishment. The theories include the social cognitive theory. The social cognitive theory was developed by Albert Bandura (Engler, 2013). The social cognitive theory explains that people learn directly through observation and imitation. The learning takes place through borrowing from through observation and adopting the behaviour that is seen from the environment (Engler, 2013).
Researches related to the study
Several scholarly articles are linked to the survey personality on consumers. The first article is the Research journal of management sciences done by Patil Hema, Bakkapa, and Somashekhar. The study in the journal is an Empirical Study of Personality and Cosmetic Consumer Behaviour. Some theories have been used to elaborate on the relationship between the personality and the consumers’ behaviour.
The Journal outlines different approaches that develop the personality. The user personality in relationship to behaviour is relative(Hema, Bakkapa, & Somashekhar, 2012). Therefore, it makes the people unique at every level. The personality traits are typically identified with what people normally do and the way the people behave. The character that one exhibit, when exposed to certain conditions, are influenced by personality. This indicates that personality relates to behaviour.
The personality attributes could be assets or liabilities in certain contexts. It determines certain behavioural tendencies of the people. Therefore, personality is a fundamental element in the determination of an individual behaviour. The researchers typically tend to identify the types of consumers are inclined to direct relationships(Hema, Bakkapa, & Somashekhar, 2012). Applying the reliability, the personality predict behaviour, numerous efforts have been put in place that to explain the relationship between the personality and the consumer behaviour. The researchers have always tried to link the personality characteristics to users’ habits. For example, the features like self-monitoring, agreeableness, emotional stability, and extraversion are connected to purchasing ability of an individual, impulsive purchase, societal influence, change in attitude and preference of a person.
On the other hand, the theory of consumer behaviour is explained and how it gains importance in influencing the purchase of items by the consumers. The consumer theory elaborates on the decision of the clients on what to buy (Hema, Bakkapa, & Somashekhar, 2012). For example, the decision on how to spend the available resources, time and effort are areas that are covered in the consumer’s theory. Therefore, these include what the customers buy, why they buy, when they buy it and where they buy. It is also concerned with the evaluation of the purchase. These include the frequency at which the customers buy items. For example, how often is a product purchased, used and disposed of?
The consumer behaviour is research that is conducted by most of the marketers in most of the world. During the setting up of a company, the company starts with the physical as well as close access to its products(Hema, Bakkapa, & Somashekhar, 2012). Therefore, this journal explains that there is a connection between personality and relationship of behaviour. One can conclude that the consumers and the behaviour patterns from a platform that dangerous for inquiry. This has raised concerns for researchers from various disciplines.
The second article that is used to explain the personality on consumer behaviour is the European Journal of Business and Management. The journal addresses the personality and consumer behaviour. The journal links the personality to the behaviour theories. The ideas are developed through psychological study (Hema, Bakkapa, & Somashekhar, 2012). There are several theories under the personality and behaviour. The journal first outlines the theories that explain the personality and development. These methods are included psychoanalytic, psychodynamic behavioural theory and social-cognitive.
The journal also explains the relationship that exists between the theory of Personality and Consumer behaviour. The theories of personality have worked in the study of consumer behaviour. The results of the survey are always relative. The theories of personality that have ever been relevant in the study of the consumer behaviour are the psychoanalytic theory as well as trait theory. The scholars have found the methods useful and applicable in the explaining as well as predicting buying patterns of the consumers. Therefore, they have applied this information to develop the market segmentation as well as using it in the product development and market communication.
On the contrary, other studies have not managed to find how personality affects the buying behaviour of the consumers. Therefore, several questions of the place of personality in the consumer behaviour are under question. Agbonifoh et al. (2007), the study of the personality and product use produced a positive result indicating that personality influences the product use. The product use would affect the buying behaviour of a person.
The study of Tsao and Chang (2010) produced a positive result in the buying motives and some traits. These include the extraversion and openness to experience as well as neuroticism. The study indicated that those who scored high in the traits had feelings, fantasies, excitement, enjoyment, and fun in the purchasing items online. The hedonic purchasing motive goes hand-in-hand with the impulsive buying. This is where an individual buy what he did not plan for with lots of pleasure with no consequences are realized in connection with the purchase. This study indicates that there is relevance in the trait theory and the psychodynamic theory in the explanation of the relationship between personality and the buying behaviour.
During the launching of new products, the knowledge of personality is significant. The traits such as dogmatism need for uniqueness, innovativeness, and variety-seeking gives the marketers an opportunity to identify the consumers’ innovators. According to Lahiri and Gupta (2005), consumer innovativeness is the significant aspect in the brand extension tactic. The need for exceptionality or uniqueness is linked to the alternative consumer products.
The cognitive theory can be applied in marketing communication. The customers need for the product ideas varies because it will depend on what approach the buyer gets from the information provided about the product. Therefore, information about a product is made look good for the consumer through advertisement. The information that customer can receive shapes the perception about the product (Hema, Bakkapa, & Somashekhar, 2012) t. On the other hand, the ethnicity of a user also plays some role in the demanding of the products. For example, the consumer response to foreign goods is related to the consumer ethnocentrism and the preference to the person’s ethnic group.
The marketers have connected the brands with the personality traits. Therefore, the marketers have the ability to connect the consumers to certain brands. Through personifying the brands with human personality traits, the markets have had the ability to influence the consumers’ preferences and choices. Kim and Zhang (2008) research indicate that customers tend to purchase products that have a connection to their personalities. Additionally, the consumers tend to buy in the shops that are relevant to their self-image and avoid those that alter their self-image.
On the contrary, the journal also elaborates that there are certain products that personality does not influence the personality. The variables of personality have less impact in changing the buying behaviours in the motor industries (Evans, 1995). The journal quotes a report of the studies conducted by Crosby and Grossbart (1984) that indicated that there was no correlation when personality traits and relationships were measured. Additionally, the journal also quotes the research that is conducted by Kassarjin suggesting that the relationship between personality traits have the consumer behaviour is only ten percent(Udo-Imeh, Awara, & Essien, 2015)(Crossby & Grossbart, 2008). Different results have been noticed variables like the brand loyalty, product type, and name choices have been used.
The gaps that exist between the articles and the research of study
The difference between the reports and the research study on this paper is very narrow. The research on this article finds the personality on buying habits. This is more similar to that of those in the provisions in the review that helps in the study of the research. Therefore, the research study indicates and the reports serve the same purpose because they all examine the impact of personality on the consumer behaviour. However, the articles that support the study have not used the research to determine the personality on consumer behaviour to manage the economy. Therefore, the gap is the functions and purpose of the survey questions.
Implication of the theories and the research
The study in the research aims at finding the relationship that exists between the personality and the consumers’ behaviour. The study has two variables to compare. The first variable is personality. It is examined and how it relates to the second variable the consumer behaviour. Therefore, the theories of personality must be studied so that one can explain how they influence the behaviour of the user.
The two types of research mentioned and described above have a connection between the personality and behaviour. The journal the Research journal of management sciences explains how personality influences the purchasing of cosmetics. This article has outlined that there is a connection between the personality and the purchasing rate of the consumers. Additionally, the psychological theory that supports the study of personality, the relationship between characters and the buying behaviour of a user is outlined in the article.
The article European Journal of Business and Management also explains the relationship of the study of personality and the buying behaviour. The article describes the theories that influence behaviour. The article tries to relate the principles between to marketing and the business worlds. This article identifies and acknowledges that there is a connection between personality and the buying behaviour.
The two studies have one common factor. The reports contain studies that try to explain the relationships between personality and buying behaviour. The primary research in this article aims at finding the relationship that exists between the behaviour and the buying behaviour. The main idea in the two articles is similar to the research question in the article in the leading studies in this paper. Therefore, the two items are highly related to the survey question. The gap that exists between the research question and the journals that support the study is narrow.
The studies from the two articles are useful in the study of personality on the buying behaviour of the people. Therefore, the two research journals are relevant to the study. This is because the theories from the journals are useful in the study of personality on the consumer behaviour. Additionally, the research methods of the study are similar. Therefore, one can borrow from the people and apply the research.
Methodological issues that are related to the studies
The choice of the topic
The inspiration that prompted the study of personality on the buying behaviour is the shopping habits of people. On the other hand, the research aims to create a guideline for the marketers on how to deal with the consumers. Therefore, the study aims at monitoring the personality of the customers and finds how this affects the buyers in the market. Additionally, the research aims at establishing a scientific guideline that can be used with the business. Therefore, the research studies the theories of personalities and identifies how the methods relate to the purchasing ability.
There are two ways of conduct and opinion research. That is the inductive and the deductive methods (Daymon & Holloway, 2010). The inductive method is where the outcome guides the research (Daymon & Holloway, 2010). On the other hand, the deductive is where the theory controls the research. In this approach, the method controls the research. Therefore, the study takes the deductive approach. This is because the theoretical approaches of personality are conducted and related to the behaviours of the people. Therefore, the study is carried out using the deductive approach.
The research uses both the secondary and primary sources of evidence. The secondary data are resources withdrawn from the journals and books (Daymon & Holloway, 2010). The journals used in the literature review are examples of the secondary data. The references made by the scholars in the books and other studies from other sources are to be used for data collection. On the other hand, the primary sources that can be utilized in the data collection have conducted an observation of the buying habits of the people. On the other hand, an interview can also be administered to the buyers concerning their personality and recorded against their shopping habits.
Effect of personality on consumer behaviour in Bahrain
Bahrain is an affluent country. However, the consumption in the country is skewed. This is because they have a big number of high-income earners from the western experts (Eromonitor, 2015). On the other hand, they have low-income people who are a society from the south Asia. Currently, the consumer index per house hold has increased significantly. However, the younger generation is driving the changes in the habits of shopping (Eromonitor, 2015). The shopping habits have turned the younger generation to internet buying. This section of this paper explains how personality has influenced the shopping habits and behaviour in the Bahrain. To bring out the topic, it is not only important to understand the disposable income of the consumers and their expenditures but also the personality of various people at different levels of the income.
The personality among the people of Bahrain can be classified according to age. The social cognitive theory influences the buying habits among the youths. The environment has made them fall in love with the internet (Eromonitor, 2015). They, therefore, have the use the internet in purchasing of the items that they need. However, most of the aged people must still go to the shops to do their shopping. Therefore, the social cognitive theory has influenced buying behaviour among the youths.
On the other hand, the trait theory is applicable in the markets of Bahrain. The consumption trend in the country has most of the people going for luxurious goods (Eromonitor, 2015). Additionally, most of the growing consumers go for cosmetic surgery. Therefore, most of the people in the Bahrain have a particular trend in the consumption of goods as well as services. The eating habits in the state also changed. Most of the people tend to purchase sugary foodstuffs. The eating pattern forms a trait which creates personality. This indicates that the personality influences the consumption behaviour in Bahrain.
Additionally, the social class has changed the shopping trends. Most of the rich people leave in safe houses, and they own real cars. They lead in the purchasing most of the expansive luxuries (Eromonitor, 2015). The theory that can be used to explain this behaviour so that the personality is identified is the psychosexual theory. This is where Id works. The rich can by expensive items softly without any strain and their conscience. Therefore, the personality on consumer habits operates in the Bahrain.
In a nutshell, this paper is a research paper that is geared towards identifying and proving the personality on consumers’ behaviours. Therefore, the paper started with providing an introduction to the study question and giving the vivid description of the research. The purpose of the research and the theories are introduced in the section of the survey.
On the other hand, the literature review is given to support the study. The relevant articles that support the study are outlined in the research. Two journals have been used, and they all contain the personality in influencing the consumers’ buying trends. Theories that are used to support the study questions are used. The articles used in the literature review are relevant to the study.
The research methodology that is relevant to the study is outlined and how they can be used to examine. The purpose of the survey is described in the method. The variables are also mentioned in the paper. The variables for the study are personality and consumer behaviours. The methods of data collection are also described in the survey. Lastly, the purpose how the method can be used to analyse the markets of Bahrain is also outlined in the research. Therefore, the research is scientific and can be utilized and conclusions drawn from the study.
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