You are to show evidence of your research by providing research of at least three resources per topic or core learning objective. These are listed below. Remember to include the one topic from Unit 4 when you completed the Research Review. Again, that means you are now providing research on 4 of the core learning objectives related to this course for your final paper. Please be sure your resources and research include the following information related to each topic:
Choose four of the following topics to review
- Explain how a firm’s human resources influence organizational performance.
- Provides a very thorough, in-depth explanation of how human resources are the main way organizations perform, including examples from actual organizations.
- Describe how firms can use HR initiatives to cope with workplace changes and trends such as a more diverse workforce, the global economy, downsizing, and new legislation.
- Creates and thoroughly describes situations and examples as well as identification of the HR initiatives to respond to workplace changes including diversity, globalization, and downsizing.
- Explain why employees join unions.
- Submits a thorough explanation of more three reasons employees join unions and examples to support each reason.
- Define “human resource management.”
- Defines “human resource management” with an in-depth explanation of the relation between HRM and the other organizational functions, and examples to support the definition and explanation.
- Explain why compliance with HR law is an important part of doing business.
- Submits a thorough explanation of all aspects of HR law compliance and supports the explanation with examples.
- Describe the process of job analysis, components of a job description, and those of a job specification.
- Provides a thorough, complete description and explains the relation between the three activities, the risks, and the positive outcomes of processes.
- Explain how a firm’s human resources influence organization performance.
- Shows an extensive description and explanation which may include some historical and future impacts of HR in how it provides support to a strategic management directive that equates to organizational success.
- List the factors influencing worker motivation that are under managers’ control
- Submits a thorough explanation of more than three influences managers can control to support worker motivation. This should also provide some motivational theories and or strategies used in organizations today.
- Be sure you include 4 topics/learning objectives to research. One can include your research review topic from Unit 4.
- The paper should be approximately 7 pages in length excluding the cover page. Each new topic/core learning objective should be clearly noted. For example, you might bold and underline a new topic you begin to discuss. References should be listed at the end of each topic and all 4 topics should be 1.5 to 2 pages in length with 12 point font, double-spaced with one inch margins.
- At least 75% of the verbiage in your offering for each topic must be in your own words. Up to 25% can be the words of others taken from either the text or from the articles you used in support of your offering. You may paraphrase (which is taking the words of others and restating them in your own words – see Online Writing Lab (OWL)), or you may quote the words of others as long as you give proper credit (see APA below). Be careful not to plagiarize which is using the words of others and presenting them as your own. Any verbiage presented in your offering that is not properly cited or given appropriate credit will be deemed as you presenting those words as your own.
- I want to make sure we are absolutely clear on this, so there are no misunderstandings down the line. Last minute emergencies, technological problems (computer crashes), etc. will not be grounds for me to give you any more time than the time you have now to do get the assignment uploaded. Be sure to back up and save a copy of your Assignment in case you or we experience technical problems.
- Assignments must be uploaded as a single file attachment (no multiple files will be accepted) I will be able to accept any file saved in Rich Text Format (.rtf) format or Word doc format. This is a 300-level (junior level) class ~~ I expect at least 300-level (junior level) work. You will be graded on what you submit (see grading rubric).
- Each topic/core learning objective review should contain at least two to three appropriate quotes and citations. If you need support on using the APA style, please visit the following websites.
- When writing your papers, be sure to include applicable excerpts from the article (in quotes and referenced) that you use in support of your statements.
- Sample of Research Paper
Human Resource Management
Why Employees Join Unions.
Pau (2015), posit that a trade union is a consortium of workers that is established to advance the economic and social interests of the labor union members. Some dynamics affect work environments, and technological advancement has a ripple effect on the work organizations. As such, trade unions come in defense of their members to advance their interests. Unions are critical in advocating and lobbying for financial benefits, job security, improved working conditions, and work benefits among other profits. Trade unions are imperative in assisting works to advocate for their economic interests of higher wages and better remunerations (Pau, 2015). The labor unions are vital as they help their members to negotiate with the employers on the best way to compensate them for their work. Increasing of wages is best advocated for by the trade unions. In doing such advocacy, they can organize go-slows and strikes to compel the employer to raise the salaries. It is noteworthy to highlight the case of Toyota Motors where the female employees were paid less than their male counterparts. As such, they organized themselves in a labor union to lobby outside pressure and internal mechanisms to ensure that women were paid equitably to men and based on their job descriptions. As such, the company hunched to the pressure and revised the compensation methods of the firm.
Conversely, trade unions are essential in promoting workers` rights related to job security. Employees more often prefer to feel the sense of their job securities and be sure that the employer would not make arbitrary and unfair decisions concerning their future employment status. The unions thus help ensure that their various jobs are protected against malicious layoffs and recalls. As such, the employer would not be able to arbitrarily demote an employee, prevent his/her promotion without probable cause, or suspend an employee devoid of a mistake since the union would be involved. For instance, for an extended period, the African Americans and women were not allowed to have a fair chance at the top leadership and earning brackets in most industries in the US until the Trade Unions were formed.
Kantor and Streitfeld (2015), postulates that labor unions are indispensable in assisting workers to get work benefits and be treated with dignity as human beings. Some of the benefits that the unions help workers to advocate for are paid leave, medical insurance cover, sick pay, shift differentials, overtime premiums, and pensions. Such benefits make workers be motivated in their work and feel the purpose of working. It gives them the sense of belonging to an organization and ignites the human dignity. It must be noted that other companies are very oppressive and lack of unions makes employees very vulnerable to the organizational culture. Amazon.com was once published by the New York Times to be a very cruel organization to its workers concerning women who can benefit from delivery or those who called in homesick.
Other reasons why workers join the unions are due to pressure from their colleagues, the contracts of work they sign compel them to join a union and workplace safety. The workplace safety ensures that the employees are well protected from any danger resulting from conditions of work. The contracts dictate that the organization has a policy for employees to be members of unions too.
Elek, N. I. (2016). Selective Incentives and Trade Union Density. Annals of The University Of
Oradea, Economic Science Series, 25(1), 340-350.
Jodi Kantor and David Streitfeld (2015). Inside Amazon: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising
Pau L. Dal (2015). Why do workers join unions? In. https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/why-do-
Human Resource Management
Humana Resource Management (HRM) is an organizational conglomeration of mechanism that is established to manage employees within a firm. Bratton, & Gold, (2017) asserts that HRM conducts the job analysis, plans the needs of the personnel, recruitment of qualified employees, orientation, and training, salaries and wages management, provision of incentives and benefits to employees, dispute resolution, communication and performance evaluation among other functions. As such, the functions of the human resource manager are categorized into three areas of staffing, the compensation and benefits of organization’s employees and designing work. The functions of an HRM is to efficiently maximize the productivity of the firm by utilizing employees’ competence and effectiveness.
The overriding principle of human resource is the fact that humans are the most critical assets of an organization. Per se, a business entity is unlikely to be successful without managing the human resource aspect of the enterprise. Humans drive changes, and even in places where technology is primarily used, a machine is as good as the operator hence the human aspect of the business is critical. The recent developments in robots have replaced human labor in some fields. However, the relations of the management and policies development still needs the inputs of humans.
The second principle that human resource holds is that it is the sole responsibility of the human resource management to identify, train and develop a competent employee who have talents and desires that resonate with the broader mission and vision of the organization (Susan, 2017). It is thus the responsibility of the HR to scout suitable candidates for replacing employees leaving the company on retirements or other unforeseen circumstances. This helps to maintain a stable corporate culture in the company that can result in employee motivation, clients’ loyalty and brand image. The HR identify talents that can-do work naturally and adequately fits in the work environment of the firm. Skills and innovations help the company to improve its services over time. This principle can maintain and sustain the firm in a competitive market.
HRM thus deals with organizing the work environment that develops the individuals and the departments in which they work to befit the firm collectively. As such, HR not only deals with securing talents and improving the same but also an implementation of specific programs that enrich communication, understanding, and cooperation among the workers to foster organization`s development (Cascio, 2018). Hence the primary function of the human resource management is to conduct the job analysis, staffing, workforce utilization, reward system implementation, evaluation and appraisal of the workforce and workforce maintenance.
It is important to note that the HR must align the factors under the mandate to the organizational policies. The natural elements of external causes like government legislation and market forces must absorb by the company and HR must be in a position to adjust to such cases. For instance, due to a government policy or market shifts where the firm is experiencing loses, the HR must coordinate retrenching and leave the company stable enough to stand the storm.
Bratton, J., & Gold, J. (2017). Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave.
Cascio, W. (2018). Managing human resources. McGraw-Hill Education.
Susan M. Heathfield (2017). What Is Human Resource Management? Beyond Hiring and Firing:
What is HR Management? https://www.thebalance.com/what-is-human-resource-management-1918143
Job Analysis, Job Description, and Job Specification.
Rohmert, (2017), posit that Job analysis is the process that organizations use to collect data on particular job responsibilities and duties, necessary skills, work environment and outcomes of the said job. The analysis provides the fundamental components or requirements of an employment position. Job analysis helps organizations to know procedures related to a particular task such as the selection, training, performance appraisal and compensation. From the analysis, job description and specification can be conducted. The analysis aids in the determination of training needs like content, training methods, and test measures to know the effectiveness of the training. It helps in compensation as it can identify skill levels, responsibilities, educational requirements and work environment. The analysis can be conducted through observation, participation, checklists, expert panels and structured questionnaires. The job analysis would then anchor job description.
A job description is the written data specifically for a particular job that can be used to advertise the job position has resulted from the job analysis. Job description details the title of the job, location or workstation, summary of the work, nature of the job and its objectives, conditions of work, machines and equipment to be used, the hazards involved and the person reporting to (Fine, & Getkate, 2014). A job description is thus used to give detailed information about a particular job of its functions and duties or responsibilities. As such, it helps individual job seekers to know if they are legible to apply for the job vacancy. Also, the firm can compile a list of characteristics, qualifications, and competencies a candidate must have to be employed for the job. Imperative to note is that job description helps in selection of the most suitable candidate for a job position.
This is the document that details the minimum qualifications that a person must poses to carry out his/her duties diligently. It is prepared by the characteristics which a person should have to get hold of the job. It also involves the academic qualifications, mental strength, and level of experience, communication skills, emotional and technical skills. General health intelligence, aptitude, sound judgment, and leadership skills. Values and ethics, manners, creativity, and flexibility are all components of the job specification.
It is therefore imperative to note that job specification and description are integral parts of a job analysis. They help the organization to define the requirements needed for a candidate to be given the job. It describes the particulars that the job needs to be sorted. Job analysis helps to provide the scope of the job in an organization, and it’s where the job descriptions and specifications are derived
Fine, S. A., & Getkate, M. (2014). Benchmark tasks for job analysis: A guide for functional job
analysis (FJA) scales. Psychology Press.
Rohmert, W. (2017). Recent developments in job analysis (Vol. 24). Taylor & Francis.
Suthar, B. K., Chakravarthi, T. L., & Pradhan, S. (2014). Impacts of Job Analysis on
Organizational Performance: An Inquiry on Indian Public-Sector Enterprises. Procedia Economics and Finance, 11, 166-181.
Factors Influencing Worker Motivation
The primary motivations that are vital to the employee and are controlled by the manager are the relationship between the manager and the employees, workplace culture and the reward system among other factors (Susan, 2017).
The reward system
Organizations have different reward systems they use to compensate employees for their work. The reward systems vary from departments, job specification and qualifications of employees. The reward system is regarding the salaries and remunerations as such; the employees are motivated if they feel the wages reflect the amount of work they do. The leaders and managers can help motivate the employees by getting involved in other reward systems like putting well for promotions. Establishing benefits and competitions that have monetary value to the employees. Also, it should be noted that other rewards include given thank you notes and congratulatory messages to the employees when they do good exemplary works.
The Work Culture
Victor (2013), asserts that organizational work culture is a significant contributor to the motivation of the employees. The organizational culture should be that where employees are treated like competent people, allowed to make the decision and take actions without being intensely supervised. As such, such a culture where there is respect for colleague employees is created by the management from the top leadership to the employees. The manager can control such an ethical culture in the work environment to motivate the employees. The manager can be accessible, and open for discussions and proposals; the employees can pass information without prejudice. As such, employees will be happy to be part of such an organization.
The leadership style of the manager controls the motivation of the employees. The workplace leadership is imperative as it inspires workers to give in more efforts at work and maintain proper standards of performance. The approachable leadership can open up for other employees to seek clarity, mentoring and friendship during work nonrelated issues.
Communication is vital in dispensing work in an organization and fostering relationships between management and employees. To motivate employees, when there are changes or structural issues, the manager can efficiently communicate with employees to motivate them. For example, using email, texts and once in a while face to face meetings to get the perspective of employees before a policy is operationalized or change effected.
Organizational theories of motivation
Expectancy theory. This theory postulates the connection employees have with the work they do and the compensation they get afterward. So that if they undertake a task and receive remunerations below their expectations, they become demotivated. If the salary is as they expected, they motivation to more of the same work better is catalyzed (Victor Lipman, 2013).
Equity Theory. The theory asserts that if two employees do a similar job, in the same way, and are satisfied with what they have done as good, they expect equal pay. So that if one is paid more than the other, then the employee with underpayments will feel discriminated and disenfranchised.
Brian Tracy (2018). The Four Factors of Motivation. American Management Association
(AMA). Retrieved on 2/3/2018.
Susan Heathfield (2017). How Great Managers Motivate Their Employees. The Balance.
Victor Lipman (2013). 5 Easy Ways to Motivate – And Demotivate – Employees. Forbes