Organizational structure development is driven by an organization’s type. According to Lamar University, organizational structure is, “the formal system of task and reporting relationships that controls, coordinates, and motivates employees so that they cooperate to achieve an organization’s goals. ” Depending on the type of business or organization, the organizational structure will be developed differently. For example, if you were running a local police department, the organizational structure would be very different from the structure used to run a department store.
The type of structure used in a organization has the potential to increase or prohibit productivity. Differentiation The differentiation organizational structure is a team-based, functional approach. The structure separates the company into different teams that are specialized to accomplish a specific task. This is commonly seen in departments within a company. The company separates employees into an information technology department, customer service department and marketing department that confines each to specific tasks. The teams to do not interconnect or cross departmental lines to maintain order and control.
Divisional Divisional organizational structure overlaps teams and skills in order to accomplish a task. This structure allows different departments to interconnect to utilize the different skills in team members on different teams. For example, if a customer is talking with a representative from the information technology (IT) department about a technical issue, a customer service representative may be needed to first listen and gather the information to relay to the IT specialist. The teams work together to increase productivity.
Tall organizations have many levels from the executives down to the entry-level positions. Tall organizations commonly use an authoritative leadership approach where leadership makes executive decisions that are communicated through management with the expectation of employees following directions without questions. This structure limits feedback from employees and does not encourage free-thinking or critical thinking. This type of structure is seen in the military. An office gives a command and the soldiers are expected to respond immediately, without question.
Flat organizations have fewer levels of management and leadership and incorporate employees into the decision-making process and daily affairs of the business. A democratic or delegative leadership structure places the emphasis more on the members of the organization than the leadership. Democratic leadership pulls team members into the decision-making process for help on brainstorming, feedback and improving company policy and procedures. Delegative structures assign tasks to different teams and allow the teams to make decision on their own without consulting leadership.
What Is Hotel Organizational Structure? A hotel organizational structure is a comprehensive plan by a hotel owner to define departmental activities and responsibilities. This structure brings order to every aspect of hotel operation from the front desk and room service to the human resources department. Hotel organizational structures are necessary to ensure maximum profitability from each room, restaurant and bar on a daily basis. Your hotel can run efficiently if it creates an organizational structure that is easy to understand. Objectives A hotel’s organizational structure is useless without an initial listing of organizational objectives.
These objectives address internal and external affairs for the hotel so that the goals it sets forth can be achieved by appropriate personnel. An internal objective for a hotel may be weekly meetings between department heads to communicate operational problems. External objectives within a hotel organizational structure may include recruitment goals for seasonal staff and variable pricing for weekdays and weekends. You can work with a hotel consulting firm such as HVS Hotel Management to establish short- and long-term objectives from the start.
Span of Control The term “span of control” is used to describe the chain of authority in a hotel organizational structure. A hotel using a wide span of control requires every department to report to the general manager directly. Hotels using narrow spans of control delegate management authority to assistant managers, department heads and supervisors for day-to-day problems. A small hotel is likely to use a wide span of control because the general manager may be on site every day. National and international chains use narrow spans of control to address hotel issues immediately as owners or general managers are not able to cover each hotel.
Defining Department Responsibilities The five departments that are listed in a hotel organizational structure are Rooms; Food and Beverage; Human Resources; Marketing; and Accounting. The Rooms department handles customer service including laundry, housekeeping and reservations. F&B is responsible for running room service, bar and restaurant operations. The Human Resources department is asked to handle employee recruitment, training and benefits, and Accounting oversees the hotel ledger. The Marketing department is given the responsibility of selling ad space in hotels and running promotions.
Organizational Flow Chart The size of your hotel will determine the size and nature of your organizational flow chart. A small hotel with a handful of employees may feature a two-level chart with the owner at the top and lines connecting to maintenance, reservations and housekeeping. A chain hotel must insert additional layers of management including an executive board and regional managers, which expands the flow chart to at least four layers. An organizational flow chart can be as general as a simple departmental overview or focused on position-by-position relationships throughout the hotel.
Job Definition and Responsibilities Your hotel should define each job title carefully after completing its organizational flow chart. Each job should be listed alphabetically within each department and include a brief summary of job responsibilities. A comprehensive list of job responsibilities for each position title should be included in an organization structure. This list is used by human resource managers for recruitment ads and employee evaluations within your hotel. Your hotel’s employees understand what they need to get done each day if they have access to narrowly defined job responsibilities.
Types of Hotel Organizational Structure By Mollye Miller, eHow Contributor updated: May 11, 2010 Large luxury hotels require a complex organizational structure to meet guest needs. Because hotels vary in size and type, hotel organizational structure depends on the range of services and amenities offered to visiting guests. Some organizational structures include multiple departments, managers and branches to extend full-service luxury accommodations and amenities. However, small, low-budget, family run hotels may have only one manager and a few employees to handle all guest needs and services.
Basic Smaller or economy hotels need a small organizational structure and hierarchy to meet guest needs All hotels divide their operations into two basic categories: administrative and guest operations. Administrative personnel handle the hotel’s paperwork, accounting, human resources and office work responsibilities. Operations employees handle the general functions of the hotel. This includes checking in guests, coordinating events, cleaning rooms and maintenance duties. Both administrative and operations employees generally report to the hotel manager (general manager) and other managerial staff employees.
The general manager oversees, and sometimes coordinates all hotel major functions and makes sure the organization runs smoothly at all times. Departments Administrative departments include human resources employees who hire and lay off staff; accountants, who handle invoices and paychecks; and front office employees who maintain the hotel’s database of guests and service calls. The administrative side also includes sales, marketing and promotional managers who advertise the hotel and its services. The operations department includes employees who operate, coordinate and handle all guest needs inperson or behind the scenes.
Operations employees include the front office workers who check in guests, maintenance crews, engineers, food and beverage staff, event coordinators and the managerial staff. Full-Service, Resort or Luxury A hotel general manager oversees all hotel operations to ensure the hotel runs smoothly. A large, full-service hotel maintains an extensive organizational structure in order to quickly meet its guests’ needs and desires. The hotel utilizes a large management staff, including a general manager, a hiring manager, and managers of its catering, restaurant, housekeeping, sales and marketing departments.
According to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics 2010-2011 report on hotel organization, large hotel chains–recognizing the importance of expanded lodging options–are starting to offer limitedservice, economy, and luxury inns under one corporate name. Limited Service or Economy Limited service hotels–including boutique hotels, some bed and breakfasts, and budget (or economy) hotels–do not require the expansive organizational structure that a large-scale hotel requires. These smaller hotels operate with a smaller, more diversified staff.
According to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics report on hotel accommodations, patrons usually find smaller hotels in urban locations. Depending on an individual hotel’s rating, patrons often find highquality service and distinctive decor and food selections due to tight staff and quality control measures. Employee Hierarchy A hotel’s organizational structure depends largely on the quality, competence and hierarchy of its staff. At the top of the hotel pyramid is the hotel’s Chief Executive Officer (CEO). Underneath the CEO is the management staff, headed by the hotel general manager.
The general manager, who oversees all hotel operations on a daily basis, may hire an assistant manager to help with his myriad duties and supervision. Underneath the general manager, a hotel may have a catering director, restaurant manager, wine manager, human resources director, administrative director, front office manager, etc. Underneath the managerial staff are the employees who work in food and beverage services, marketing and sales, room service, housekeeping and maintenance. The size of the hotel and the type of services it offers determines the complexity of its organizational employee structure.