Topic 2 The cutaneous region is the most superficial layer of the exogenous pathogenic factor penetrates. The pathogenic factor enters through the skin or the cutaneous zones. The cutaneous region is used for skin disorders such as skin sensation, skin lesions, and discoloration. The Cutaneous region is divided into 6 cutaneous zones which are Yangming, Taiyang, Shaoyang, Taiyin, Shaoyin, and Jueyin. This zone is used to diagnose the symptoms which particular hand-foot channel pair is pertaining to, which will help to identify appropriate local points can be used for treatment.
(1)Sinew channel can be seen as a protective coat’ that defends the body against the invasion of the external pathogenic factors. If the pathogen invades the sinew channel, it will give rise to disorders in skeletal structures and restricts the movement of the muscle and joints. Common symptoms include muscular tension, pain, cramping, spasms, stiffness, and swellings on muscles, tendons, joints, and ligaments. These symptoms will appear along the sinew pathway. (1) The luo-connecting channel is used in clinical situations where the signs and symptoms revealed on the luo-connecting channel regions.
Such as local edema, swelling, or dilation of capillaries on shallow skin. It also can be used to treat internally-externally pertaining channel or zang-fu problems and can be effective for psycho-emotional disorders. (1) The 12 primary channel are interconnected physically at the extremities and with the internal organs. Each primary channels are connected with their pertaining organs and these are paired with subsequent organs. When there are disorders in Qi, blood and fundamental substances, it will impair the normal functions of each channel, hence affecting related organs. The primary channel can be used to treat in these clinical situations as the entire body is connected according to 6 channel theory, yin-yang, and exterior-interior relationship. (1) The divergent channel is the last channel that stops the pathogenic factors before penetrating zang-fu organs. This channel is used to strengthen the yin-yang channel and pertaining organs. It helps consolidate regions of the body where the primary channel cannot reach, for example, help Qi and blood from yin channel to ascend to head and face.(1) The extraordinary vessel is the deepest channel and travels deep in the body, and in close relationship with the primary channels. The extraordinary vessel can be used to treat chronic diseases, and complicated disorders involving a number of different meridians, organs and body parts.(1) Topic 3The exogenous factor is one of the primary causes of channel pathology that will induce disharmony. The exogenous factor or the external climatic factors include Wind, Cold, Heat/Fire, Summer heat, damp, and dryness and each climatic factor are related to particular seasons and internal yin organs. For example, Wind refers to spring and invades Liver, and Cold is winter invades the Kidney. (2) These environmental phenomena can be a cause of disease with sudden onset, and due to dramatic or abrupt changes in weather. It disrupts the balance of yin and yang, qi and blood, and channels and organs. When the body is weakened due to disharmony, the external factors can invade the body and give rise to disease. The relatively weak Wei-qi/defensive-qi will fail to protect against the exogenous factors and the adaptive function is damaged. (3) Overuse which is another primary cause of a disease can relate to overwork, excessive physical and mental work. It can cause disharmony and damage the Qi and Blood circulation of the 12 regular channels. For example, overwork induces Kidney yin deficiency and excessive mental work will weaken the Spleen.(3) Excessive physical work damages the muscle and sinew as well as their pertaining organs and causes Qi stagnation. (2)Trauma can also be a cause of a disease. Normally physical trauma involves mental shock that can be engraved in the memory which will overlap simultaneously with old trauma. Physical trauma includes impact trauma, cutting wounds, burns, and animal bites. Trauma often damages skin, sinew, bones and cause Qi stagnation and blood stasis in local areas and it can result in pain, bruising and oedema. (2)Topic 4 According to the six-channel theory, the Sanjiao channel refers to hand Shaoyang channel which is paired with the gallbladder channel of foot shaoyang. Each channel are also linked internally-externally with other channels such as Sanjiao channel is coupled with the Pericardium channel and Gallbladder channel is coupled with the Liver channel. (1) Shaoyang channel can be used to clear both interior-exterior heats especially wind-heat syndrome of exogenous factor. Wind refers to the liver, and the liver is paired with gallbladder, which can treat Liver-Gallbladder heat. It can involve clearing heat in eyes, neck, throat, and tongue. (1) Also, signs and symptoms caused by the excessive physical or mental work and physical trauma, Sanjiao channel can help relaxing spirit or shen as Sanjiao is closely related with the Pericardium channel and the location of the local points of the Sanjiao channel. It can treat symptoms such as pain in the chest, restlessness, mania, epilepsy and spirit disorders.Shaoyang channel travels along the temporal region or the lateral side of the head, thus it can treat headaches occurring from this area. (1) ConclusionEach channel group is classified under functional depth and each layer provides protection against the external pathogenic factors. It is relatively easier to treat when the pathogenic factors are on the exterior region however, it is relatively harder when the body is in disharmony thus the body provides weak resistance to the pathogenic factors. According to the manifestations, the disease can be treated with the corresponding channels.