Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
The use of dietary supplements has become increasing common in the US and their sales have become “big business”. There are over 50,000 products that can be classified as dietary supplements on the market, and sales exceed 30 billion dollars. The question is: are they safe and are they effective? PART I: What are they, and are they safe? 1. Define “dietary supplement”, and in a general sense tell why people take them. 2. Discuss the US regulations governing what is sold as a dietary supplement. 3. Is it possible for dietary supplements to cause adverse reactions? Discuss in general why using a supplement might result in the person having a bad reaction. 4. List 3 or more ways that you can be a safe and informed consumer if you choose to use a supplement. PART II: Explore a plant based dietary supplement: FOR part II I chose ACAI 5. Many dietary supplements on the market today are extracts of some plant. The NIH (National Institutes of Health) has an Office of Dietary Supplements. The website for this office is: www.ods.od.nih.gov Go to that website and click on “Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets”. On the next page that appears, click on the supplement name (it’s in blue letters under Federal Government Resources). A fact sheet on your supplement will appear. a) what supplement did you chose what is it used for? b) does the scientific evidence support its use for this purpose? c) are there any safety concerns about its use? 6) On the last page of this there is information that is provided for the next few questions. From this information, answer the following questions: a) Does this site agree with the NIH site regarding what this supplement is used for? b) Do the two sites agree on whether this supplement is effective? Explain your answer c) Do the two sites agree on whether this supplement is safe? Explain your answer d) Is it possible that this supplement could interact with a drug someone is taking? Explain your answer. e) List one piece of evidence you got from this site that was not available on the NIH site PART III. Explore a Vitamin 7. Vitamins are also classified as dietary supplements. Return to the NIH site: www.ods.od.nih.gov Any vitamin can work. Choose to your preference From the list, chose a supplement that is listed as a vitamin and click on it. Click on the information for consumers. Using this fact sheet, answer the following: a) What are the effects of this vitamin on health? b) What foods contain this vitamin, and do you think you probably get enough of it from the food you normally eat? Why or why not? c) Can this vitamin be harmful? Explain your answer d) Are there any examples of this vitamin interacting with drugs a person might be taking? PART IV: What do you think? 9. Give us your opinion: did you learn anything from doing this exercise, in general do you think supplements are safe and effective, and do you think the regulations on use of supplements in the US are strong enough? 3120 West March Lane – Stockton, California 95219 www.naturaldatabase.com – Email: email@example.com PH (209) 472-2244 – Fax (209) 472-2249 ACAI Also Known As: Açaï, Acai Berry, Açaï d’Amazonie, Acai Extract, Acai Fruit, Acai Palm, Amazon Acai, Amazon Acai Berry, Assai, Assai Palm, Baie d’Açaï, Baie de Palmier Pinot, Cabbage Palm, Chou Palmiste, Extrait d’Açaï, Fruit d’Açaï, Palmier d’Açaï. CAUTION: See separate listing for Acacia. Scientific Name: Euterpe oleracea, synonym Euterpe badiocarpa. Family: Arecaceae/Palmae. People Use This For: Orally, acai is used for osteoarthritis, hypercholesterolemia, erectile dysfunction, weight loss and obesity, detoxification, aging skin, metabolic syndrome, and for improving general health. As a food, the acai berry is consumed raw and as a juice. The juice is also used commercially as a beverage and in ice cream, jelly, and liquors. In manufacturing, acai berry is used as a natural food colorant. Safety: POSSIBLY SAFE …when used orally and appropriately, short-term. Acai has been safely used in a clinical trial lasting up to one month (17731). PREGNANCY AND LACTATION: Insufficient reliable information available; avoid using. Effectiveness: INSUFFICIENT RELIABLE EVIDENCE to RATE Metabolic syndrome. Preliminary clinical research suggests that consuming 100 mg of acai pulp (Sambazon Acai Smoothie Pack, Sambazon Inc.) twice daily for one month reduces fasting glucose and total cholesterol levels from baseline in overweight patients. However, no effect was seen on low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), blood pressure, C-reactive protein (CRP) or nitric oxide metabolites (17731). More evidence is needed to rate acai for this use. Mechanism of Action: The applicable part of acai is the fruit or berry. Acai juice is often prepared by macerating the fruit. The juice is viscous and contains about 2.4% protein and 5.9% lipids (13087). The fruit pulp contains about 4% protein and 12% lipids. Other nutrients include calcium, vitamin A, phosphorus, iron, and thiamine (13088, 15050). Acai berry contains several anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids. The most abundant are cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, ferulic acid, epicatechin, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, and pelargonidin-3-glucoside. Others include cyanidin 3-sambubioside, peonidin 3-glucoside, and peonidin 3-rutinoside, gallic acid and several derivatives, catechin, and ellagic acid (13087, 15050). The anthocyanins are pigments that give the ripe fruit its purple color. Anthocyanins are also potent antioxidants. Acai fruit pulp has a very high antioxidant capacity. It has more antioxidant content than cranberry, raspberry, blackberry, strawberry, or blueberry (13087). A specific freeze-dried acai fruit pulp and skin powder (OptiAcai, K2A LLC) has potent in vitro antioxidant activity against superoxide and peroxyl radical which is higher than other fruits. But has only mild antioxidant activity against peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radical. This extract also appears to inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 in vitro (15051). Acai berry also contains several fatty acids. The most abundant is the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid. The second most abundant is the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid. The third most abundant is the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid (15050). Adverse Reactions: None reported. However, raw acai fruit and juice can be contaminated with a parasitic protozoan called Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes American trypanosomiasis or Chagas Disease. A Brazilian outbreak of this disease in 2006 was linked to consumption of acai juice (17194). Interactions with Herbs & Supplements: None known. Interactions with Drugs: None known. Interactions with Foods: None known. Interactions with Lab Tests: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI): Consumption of acai fruit might increase T1-weighted MRI signal and decrease T2-weighted MRI signal in imaging studies of the gastrointestinal tract (13088). Interactions with Diseases or Conditions: None known. Dosage/Administration: ORAL: For metabolic syndrome, 100 mg of acai pulp (Sambazon Acai Smoothie Pack, Sambazon Inc.) twice daily for 1 month has been used (17731). Editor’s Comments: Acai is pronounced AH-sigh-EE. Acai is a palm tree widely distributed in the northern area of South America. Acai gained popularity in North America after being promoted by Dr. Nicholas Perricone as a “Superfood for Age-Defying Beauty” on the Oprah Winfrey show. This monograph was last reviewed on 06/14/2012 and last updated on 08/09/2012. Monographs are reviewed and/or updated multiple times per month and at least once per year. If you have comments or suggestions on something that should be reviewed or included, please tell the editors. For details about our evidence-based approach, see our Editorial Principles and Process. Natural Medicines disclaims any responsibility related to medical consequences of using any medical product. Effort is made to ensure that the information contained in this Natural Medicines monograph is accurate at the time it was published. However, we cannot guarantee the information is error-free and disclaim any liability or responsibility for any reliance on it. The information is also not intended to be a substitute for medical or other professional advice, and you should not use any product or substances reference herein without consulting a medical professional. Consumers and medical professionals who consult this Natural Medicines monograph are cautioned that any medical or product related decision is the sole responsibility of the consumer and/or the health care professional. A legal License Agreement sets limitations on downloading, storing, or printing content from Natural Medicines. Except for any possible exceptions written into your License Agreement, no reproduction of this monograph or any content from Natural Medicines is permitted without written permission from the publisher. Unlawful to download, store, or distribute content from Natural Medicines or this site. For the latest comprehensive data on this and every other natural medicine, health professionals should consult the Professional Version of Natural Medicines. It is fully referenced and updated daily. © Copyright 1995-2016 Therapeutic Research Faculty, publishers of Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, Prescriber’s Letter, and Pharmacist’s Letter. All rights reserved. www.naturaldatabase.com firstname.lastname@example.org PH (209) 472-2244
GET AN ESSAY WRITTEN FOR YOU FROM AS LOW AS $13/PAGE
Date of Submission
According to the United States, dietary supplements turns out to be any substances that human beings eat and drink which can include minerals, vitamins, herbs or any other plant, amino acids or part of these elements (Mursu et al. 2011) On the same note, these supplements help in boosting the diet and must not necessarily be regarded as a substitute for food. Individuals typically consume dietary supplements with the aim of generating nutrients to the body to boost the level of consumptions or to provide chemicals perceived to have a beneficial biological effect.
In general, the US Food and Drug Administration. (2014) Regulation conditions on these supplements are unlike from those for recommendation or over-the-counter medicines that must be accessed by the institution before marketing phase. However, it is the responsibility of the company producing the supplements to evidently display that their products are safe and transparent labeling which should not be misleading to the users. It is also allowed for the dietary supplements labels to highlight various types of health-related claims; for instance, that these supplements address a nutrient insufficiency, supports well-being, or associated with a specific body function such as immunity. Besides, the claim should be followed by the words “The statement has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration hence has no intention to diagnose, treat, heal, or prevent any illness.”
According to Xiao et al. (2013), a number of these supplements are composed of active ingredients that may have high effects on the human body especially when it comes to the usage of new products that have taken less period in the marketing environment. These results are more likely to affect the body when individuals consume the supplements instead of prescribed medicines or when they consume them in combination. Some of these effects comprise of bleeding or can trigger an individual’s response to anesthesia when taken before a surgical procedure. For one to be on a safer side while using these supplements, it is advisable for the user to;
- To inform his or her health provider on any dietary supplement, they consume.
- Do not consume more massive doses than the prescribed recommendation.
- Regularly check with the healthcare providers on the possible adverse effects of the supplement consumed.
The supplement of choice is acai which is also known as cabbage palm or acai berry that is small in size, reddish-purple that consist of a cluster seeds that can run bad and have essential nutritional effects when consumed fresh (Mursu et al. 2011). Acai when consumed orally, it cures erectile dysfunctions, aging skin, osteoarthritis, weight loss and obesity and enhancing the life condition of a person. In the manufacturing companies, it is consumed as a natural food colorant. However, some of the traditional uses of acai include the curing of diarrhea, parasitic ailments, and ulcers.
Scientific research done on acai berry states that the fruit has the possibility of positive health benefits due to its composition of antioxidant scavenging abilities and the reduction of biological activities that can destroy cellular integrity. Also, the scientific research published in September suggested the side effects of acai berry is a chemical sample that was injected in the urothelial bladder cancer in a mice together with the experiment and multiplicity of transitional cell carcinoma. After a while, the results showed that the acai pulp was able to lower the transitional cell carcinoma incidence together with reducing the DNA damage. Various lab studies and tests have also confirmed positive effects of acai on diseases associated with heat illness, cancer, and oxidative stress.
Even though acai has not been linked with enough data on its side effects, it is however recommended that the pregnant or the breastfeeding should avoid consuming the berry just to stay on the safe side. Also, drinking the raw juice of acai juice has been associated with the outbreaks of ailment referred to as American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease (Rasband, 2012). On the same note, the berries should be taken in moderation since they still contain sugar in them even if they hold a low quantity since fructose can always be harmful to the body.
When it comes to the two sites, they both agree that acai berry can be used for weight loss and anti-aging purposes; although the site gives a broader view of the uses that of NIH. Also, the two sections tend to agree on the significance of weight loss that is typically associated with the consumption of acai pulp. The 100mg of the acai pulp will lower down the cholesterol level in the overweight patients. On the safety aspect of the acai berry, the two sides agree on a given factor which is; it is recommended that the berry should be consumed orally and appropriately (Xiao et al. 2013). The NIH site warns individuals to be cautious with phrases like “totally safe” or “quick and effective.” There are possibilities that acai could interact with drugs such as painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin hence should not be mixed without the knowledge of a professional doctor. NIH site does not give the scientific name of acai while the other section does.
Vitamin B6 is found in several foods hence the body requires this type of vitamin for more than 100 enzyme reactions associated with body metabolism and also necessary for the brain growth during pregnancy, infancy, and functioning of the immune system. Foods such as fish, fruits, and poultry contain this type of vitamin, and personally, the body gets much of this vitamin due to the eating habit of loving chicken too much. However, taking high levels of this vitamin can be harmful to the body and can lead to severe nerve interference thus making a person to lose control of the body movement (Xiao et al. 2013). It is also true that the consumption of vitamin B6 supplements can readily react with cycloserine which is an antibiotic consumed to cure tuberculosis.
In conclusion, the use of dietary supplements should be taken with moderation and keen supervision from healthcare personnel with the aim of making the right decision while using these supplements. The entire exercise has been so educative more so on outlining the possible side effects of consuming dietary supplements which are regarded to be both positive and negative. In general, the safety of supplements is not educative enough; thus, caution needs to be taken on their consumption and the United States should also put more strict laws and regularities on the use of dietary supplements.
Mursu, J., Robien, K., Harnack, L. J., Park, K., & Jacobs, D. R. (2011). Dietary supplements and mortality rate in older women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Archives of internal medicine, 171(18), 1625-1633.
Rasband, W. S. (2012). ImageJ. US National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland, USA: 1997–2012. There is no corresponding record for this reference.
US Food and Drug Administration. (2014). Dietary supplements. Alert: Dietary Supplements: Aristolochic Acid, FDA Concerned About Botanical Products, Including Dietary Supplements, Containing Aristolochic Acid.
Xiao, Q., Murphy, R. A., Houston, D. K., Harris, T. B., Chow, W. H., & Park, Y. (2013). Dietary and supplemental calcium intake and cardiovascular disease mortality: the National Institutes of Health–AARP diet and health study. JAMA internal medicine, 173(8), 639-646.