The theory is a formal statement of the rules on which a subject of study is based or of ideas, which are suggested to explain a fact or event or, more generally, an opinion or explanation (University Cambridge, 2008).In social research, the theory provides a “backcloth and rationale” for the study being conducted but also provides a background or framework within which social phenomena can be understood and research findings can be interpreted (Bryman, 2012). In relation to the above, this research employed the Nyarkoh’s (2016) adoptive framework is used to analyze the findings of the study.
The theory identifies specific strategies and mechanisms or rationale for reform implementation. The framework explains three main reasons behind the adoption and or retention of educational policies around the globe; competitive driven reforms, finance-driven reforms, and equity-driven reforms. Nyarkoh fuse the Newman’s(2001) framework which also explains the tensions brought about as a result of giving more power to the local from the center evolves four models of governance; hierarchical, rational goal, open system and self-governance models (Nyarkoh, 2016).
This model will be helpful in analyzing the findings of the study as it explored the type of model being employed by the policymakers in relation to decentralization/autonomy in Colleges of Education in Ghana. This framework addressed two major objectives: assisted to find out the motive for elevating the status of Colleges of Education and the extent to which decentralization is implemented in the midst of its challenges. 3.1.2 Eric Nyarkoh Adoptive TheoryNyarkoh adopted the theories of Martin Carnoy’s Globalization theory and Newman’s Governance theory. The complement of these two theories helps him to address the rationale behind the elevation of the status of the Colleges of Education as well as the challenges that comes with decentralization.The Martin Carnoy’s theory is used in explaining the change in the governance system. The Newman’s governance theory accomplishes the task, by considering four models of governance which emerge as a result of tension from internal and external sources as government implement decentralization policy in the education are distinguished.3.1.3 Martin Carnoy Theory of GlobalizationThe international testing of pupils /students has called for raising the standard of our teacher education to the international level. The international testing serves as an indicator of how well a teacher education is functioning in a particular country. As a result, teacher education is consistently monitored and constantly challenged about quality, so that reforms are implemented with the goal of improving the quality. Thus, it has become more common to know about other countries educational programs. The purpose is to obtain ideas for how teacher education can be organized and developed. This can explain how globalization challenges the concept of high-quality teacher education (GMR, 2013-14). In this section, the central information and concepts of the globalization theory of Carnoy are presented. The framework explains three main reasons behind the adoption and or retention of educational policies around the globe: competitive-driven reforms, finance-driven reforms, and equity-driven reforms. Competitive reform meant to improve the quality of education as measured in students’ achievement and education’s relevance to the labor market. According to the framework, countries adopt certain educational policies to strive for quality-competitive driven not only because they want their educational system to be competitive but also produce competitive human capital to drive their developmental needs. This thinking is directly linked with the human capital theory which views investment in education as the surest way of improving the economic viability of individuals and states at large (Nyarkoh, 2016). Ghana’s educational reforms through the structural adjustment policies adopted in the 1980s were more of competition driven and as such had much support from the international community. Decentralization/autonomy , centralized standards , improved management of educational resources(this ensures mobilization of resources from sources other than those from the state and their efficient use), and improved teacher recruitment/ training(policies are introduced to improve teacher education) which are all considered in the study are considered the major categories of competitiveness-driven reforms (Carnoy, 1999). More so, finance-driven reforms which can be linked with the competitive-driven reform relates to education financing, including public sector budget cuts, private company incomes, and reduced private-public resources available to education. The aim is to make education cost sharing between the government and students and or their parents. The government of Ghana in 2014 canceled the payment of monthly stipend to the student teachers after the colleges were elevated to tertiary status and were asked to pay user fees but the advent of the new government in 2017 restored the monthly stipends to serve as an incentive for prospective applicants. The equity-driven reforms according to Carnoy (1999) has a political goal of ensuring equality among different groups and the main types of reforms under this component include: reaching the lowest income groups, certain groups of the population such as women and rural people, as well as special needs students with quality basic education. The government of Ghana canceled the payment of the monthly stipend to student teachers stating that it was to ensure equity. According to the erstwhile government, all tertiary students take student loans and the continuous payment of the monthly stipend was creating inequality among the tertiary students that needed to be addressed. Again, the government indicated that the cancellation was to give more prospective teacher trainees the opportunity to be admitted as the payment limited the number of students the colleges could admit. However, the current government restored the payment of the monthly stipend to make the teacher education more attractive to applicants with the best grades. Most at times, the teacher education admission loose prospective applicants to the universities. Obviously, these two government has a different perspective in terms of equity. The immediate past government considered equity in the eye of all tertiary education benefits,