The primary goal of this course is to introduce you to the process of change and change management. Through the first three modules, you have gained an awareness of the theories, models, and techniques for managing organizational change. This midterm examination will allow you to apply what you have learned so far in the course. There are six essay topics listed here. You must select any three topics and write a short essay on each topic. Essay Question Options 1. In the first chapter of the textbook, you were introduced to four short stories of change. Select any one story and discuss the lessons that emerge from it. 2. Discuss the six images of managing change and how each can effect an organization. 3. Discuss the six environmental pressures for change faced by managers. 4. Discuss and provide examples of the differences between first-order and second-order change. 5. Discuss the ways a manager can determine if the organization is ready to change. 6. Identify the reasons people resist change and what a skilled manager can do to overcome resistance. Remember: • This is an open-reference examination. You may use any resources you may need to provide adequate details to present your point of view in your essay responses. However, all work must be your own, and you are not to consult with other people on it. • Your submission should be 1–2 pages in length, double-spaced, with proper citations and references as per the APA format and writing style (6th edition).


M3A1: Managing Change

Student’s Name





Discuss the six images of managing change and how each can affect an organization.

Discuss the ways a manager can determine if the organization is ready to change.

Identify the reasons people resist change and what a skilled manager can do to overcome resistance.


M3A1: Managing Change

Six Images of Managing Change

Images of managing change influence the interpretation of the proceedings of an organization affecting the probable outcome. The images of change arise from the management as control and shaping protocols for an organization to efficiently induce growth and development. The images of change include director, navigator, coach, caretaker, interpreter, and nurturer.

The first image of change manager as director is comprised of the management as control and of change outcomes that prove to be achieved at the end. The image directs an organization in a manner with the aim of impacting the required change (Palmer et al., 2009). The believe that the intentional change can be achieved influences the organization’s growth and competitiveness in the market.

The second image of change manager as navigator entails the control at the center of the management action. There are a variety of external factors that affect the manager and requires effective navigation to sail through in order to achieve the intended change outcomes. The managers do not have control of these external factors, rather ought to embrace them in a bottom-up involvement of the staff to survive the turbulence. The change image enhances the management and organization to sail through turbulent times the organization faces to achieve the expected outcomes.

The third image of change manager as caretaker is one of control that shows the ability to respond to both internal and external forces. The image is highly propelled by three important organizational theories including population ecology, life-cycle, and institutional management (Palmer et al., 2009). The image elevates the company’s and management ability to deal with both internal and external forces.

The fourth image of change as coach rides on the assumption that change managers can intentionally shape the organization’s capabilities of functioning. The coach aims at building the right set of skills and values to guide the operations of an organization. The image is effective in inducing organizational development efficiently.

The fifth image of change as interpreter creates the meaning of other organizational members enhancing the capacity to make sense of the proceedings of an organization (Palmer et al., 2009). The managers can provide legitimate arguments and reasons for their actions within the organization. This affects the organization by bringing its employees closer to the organization’s plans.

Lastly, the image of change as nurturer assumes that even small changes can have a high impact on the organization. This culminates into enhancing the managers to induce positive self-organization impacting to development of the organization. This requires maximization of any opportunity available for development.

Ways a Manager Can Determines if An Organization is Ready for Change

The process of determining an organization’s readiness for change requires the managers to be keen and thorough to stipulate the perfect time to introduce change. The choice of the right time for change is significant towards ensuring the successful of change (Hallgrimsson, 2008). Managers can determine an organization’s readiness for change through developing an assessment to evaluate its resources and capacity to introduce any change effectively. The establishment of the resources available to an organization gives the managers a go ahead or deny the approach when the approach is not ready to be implemented.

As well, managers must bring on board employees of the organization to determine their readiness for change since, employees form the essential capacity of the organization’s performance (Weiner, 2009). The organization must assess the human resource capacity to effect change through the available expertise.

Reasons People Resist Change

There are diverse reasons why people resist change in an organization undermining the whole process. These reasons include alienation of the employees in change drafting and lack of communication keeping the employees in the dark of what is going on in the organization. In turn, they feel that they are not part of the process, hence, creating rebellion (Wittig, 2012). Also, change threatens the normalcy of the organization operations. Thus, employees want to remain in the status quo. As well, employees resist change when they see the change does not interest or elevate their status in any better way. Additionally, the approach in which change is introduced makes employees resist the process vehemently.

In order for managers to overcome resistance when introducing change in an organization, they ought to bring employees on board and communicate what is going on. This helps forge a better relationship and acceptance to the change process (Lind, 2014). Also, managers should seek opinions from the employees to make them part of the process and own it. Finally, managers ought to choose the change approach very carefully to avoid any form of resistance towards the change process.




Hallgrimsson, T. (2008). Organizational change and readiness: Employees attitudes during times of proposed mergers. Unpublished independent dissertation, Universite et I Troso, Norwey, retrived from www. munin. uit. no.

Lind, T. (2014). Change and resistance to change in health care: Inertia in sociotechnical systems (Doctoral dissertation, Uppsala universitet).

Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Weiner, B. J. (2009). A theory of organizational readiness for change. Implementation science, 4(1),

Wittig, C. (2012). Employees’ reactions to organizational change. OD Practitioner, 44(2), 23-28.


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