the Essay


Having worked for almost two decades as a former employee of the Health Authority of Anguilla (HAA), I have chosen to focus my project on the Human Resource concepts in practise in this organisation because I desire to see improvements within the HAA. My reason for focusing on this specific topic is that through observation and research the Management of the HAA will be provided with feedback and abstract knowledge on the investigation of the systems in place within the organisation.

Thus, enable improvements and transformation in the organisational structure.

This paper seeks to identify and address the deficiencies of the HAA’s Human Resources system through interviewing the Human Resources Manager and conducting informal interviews with employees. The culture that ‘we do it this way around here’ is an old adage and in the twenty-first century, there is a need for change if the organisation is going to compete for the position of leading health facility on the island.

Management’s team will be cited with some invaluable recommendations that they may be implemented on completion of this project.


Identification and Outline of Objectives

The purpose of this report is to:

1. Determine what can empower and motivate staff to improve overall performance of staff throughout the organisation and by looking at the practicalities of actually implementing the things that will help to improve performance;

2. Review the man-power, age range, teamwork and succession planning and compare the theory with what is being done now and, crucially, with what needs to be done in the future;

3. Compare and contrast the motivation, team work and performance appraisal system with what is happening now and with how the theory says it should be done;

4. Arrive at a positive strategic plan of action based on findings and look at the benefits of a comprehensive HR tool.

The Health Authority of Anguilla as my selection for this project, as I was employed with the organisation until November 2017. My topic chosen for this research will enable me to unearth some of the many challenges faced by both the employees as well as the employer of the HAA.



The Health Authority of Anguilla has been a Government of Anguilla (GOA) statutory body since 2004 and which has not accomplished its mandate to become self-sufficient. HAA has a board comprised of seven members and three committees, namely the:

Finance and Audit Committee

Human Resources Committee

Patient Care Committee

Directives by the board and implemented by the six executive managers who are the:

Chief Executive Officer

Chief Financial Officer

Director of Medical Services

Director of Nursing Services

Director of Facilities

Human Resources Manager

GOA subsidises HAA with a monthly subvention of EC$1.3 million to meet its personnel costs, including 212 employees are hired by HAA. However, the Government has reduced its monthly subvention due to financial constraints. As a result, HAA cut employees’ salaries by an average of ten percent and remunerations paid to Board and Committee Members by five percent. This caused HAA to discontinue the annual increments awarded to its employees since 2010. There is no indication when these increments will resume due to the country’s financial position.

In this project, the modules incorporated are Belbin’s Team Roles, Group Development, Job Characteristics, Integrated Model of Strategic Management and SWOT Analysis.?

Description of Project Plan and Approach

According to the word research means ‘a conscientious and orderly research or observation into the subject to identify or review the truths, thesis that can use qualitative or quantitative research methods’. In my project work research, I chose Human Resources related aspects of the organisation and selected project objectives from which I formulated the project title.

Primary data was collected through a questionnaire designed, piloted and administered with a specific timeframe for completion to HAA staff members in different departments. The questionnaire included a cover letter explaining the reason for investigating HR concepts. Categorised below and the ten questions asked:

One question to circle employee’s age range;

Two closed ended questions selecting either poor, fair, good, very good or excellent;

Four closed ended questions selecting yes or no answer;

Two questions selecting strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree;

Four open-ended questions, if yes or no, explain why.

Questions 3, 4 and 5 had more than one part. Participants had to tick their preferences. The employees’ responses and findings were analysed (refer to Appendix).

Secondary data included interviews, Internet research, articles and GOA Administration.?

Introduction of the Main Body

(Editor’s note: Page count for main body is 24 pages)

A sample of 30% of 212 employees or 64 persons should have completed the research work, which was a questionnaire conducted during a six-week period. However, the main source of data was from 50 respondents who completed and returned their questionnaires. Different department’s covering a wide cross section of employees in the Princess Alexandria Hospital undertook the study. The investigation’s aim was primarily to determine the deficiencies of the Human Resources systems practised in the Health Authority of Anguilla. The main objectives of the research on HR concepts are teamwork, succession planning, training, and motivation and performance appraisal system.

No organisation can survive without a Human Resources Management (HRM) team, who seeks to recruit knowledgeable staff. HRM is solely accountable to the Board for the proper functioning of the organisation and the functions of management as well as oversees that staff members accomplish the objectives of the organisation. The HR Department fosters good promulgation and participation throughout the organisation. The desired result and capability of HRM is to sustain team spirit and trustworthiness in the organisation. HRM is obligated to guarantee that staff members are knowledgeable and inspired to fulfil the goals of the HAA that will be valuable to its shareholders.

In order to develop a better understanding of what motivates workers in the workplace, philosophers like Maslow in his theory suggested five specific needs:

Physiological needs

Safety needs

Loving/belonging needs



On the other hand, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory purported five components of the job to obtain satisfaction are:



The job Itself



Lastly, Vroom’s Expectancy Theory has three main components:




Editor’s note: First sentence below is not clear. What do you mean?

(Ruth to check for website URL to link to the specific page and article referenced) stated that motivation is inward and may include outward circumstances that encourage passion and efficiency in human beings to be persistently concerned and activated to an occupation, post or object, or to bring about an accomplishment to achieve an objective. There are two types of motivation as follows:

Intrinsic motivation

Extrinsic motivation

Intrinsic motivation is performed for or on behalf of a person to encourage her/him. This comprises remuneration, comparable to increased compensation, recognition, advancement and discipline, like punishment, confiscate remuneration or poor appraisal. Extrinsic motivation can have an instantaneous and effective impact, but it is temporary.

(Editor’s note: Ruth to review her notes on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and find out what is missing from original as we couldn’t locate the info on the referenced website.)

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Maslow’s physiological needs look at a person’s basic wants. According to h

ttps:// (insert correct website URL to link to the specific page and article referenced), Maslow’s assumption is that workers commencing work are at the lowest level. The employee will be interested in acceptable remuneration to maintain her/his household. Secondly, she/he will be concerned about secure surroundings. Another significant aspect for the employee would be permanent employment status. Performance is dependent on the worker and guarantees the stability of employment.

(Editor’s note: Ruth will check website and her notes to find source of above information since we couldn’t locate it on the referenced website.)

This theorist purported that once this need was fulfilled a person would move on to the other needs listed, which is safety. This encumbers the protection of one’s self from danger, which is proper housing. Another security is her or his employment and the mechanisms in place to protect her or him from work hazards that will endanger one’s health.

Love and belonging are very crucial requirements in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory. People prefer to know that they have their friends, close relatives and companion or spouse. This group represents the person’s inner circle, which is her or his support system. Expectations met at this level leads to a person’s ability to have esteem needs met.

According to research (insert correct website URL to link to the specific page and article referenced), belongingness or the human aspect plays a significant role in motivating an employee. The employee’s relationship with other subordinates will encourage her or him to work. She or he must feel a sense of belonging to that group in the organisation, that social bond is important. Supervisors also need to encourage an atmosphere that will be conducive to productivity. Additionally, the managers will have to insist to the management team that staff members are performing to their peak and recommend a pay increase or a promotion. This enhances interaction that is cohesive. As well, continuous communication on a day-to-day basis makes staff feel important and a part of what is happening in the organisation.

The esteem level is where the person requires admiration from other co-workers or the public. Persons arriving at their peak feel that they have acquired self-worth and seek to associate with persons in the same calibre. Lastly, the person has excelled to her or his full potential or self-worth and that, we say, is self-actualisation. Self-actualisation is an accomplishment of a requirement met by a person who has excelled academically or who has climbed to the top of the professional ladder. In both cases, the person feels that it is a remarkable accomplishment. (insert correct website URL to link to the specific page and article referenced) presented the view that self-esteem and self-actualisation are firstly where the worker insists the likeness of oneself and her or his ambition to earn admiration and the perception of others.

Over a period of unbroken years of service, a worker may have the desire for training in a number of job related tasks, job enrichment or a part of a prestigious team in the organisation. This employee will also be looking forward to her or his own office space and other company benefits. Remuneration is not worthwhile if the worker does not feel that it is coming from the workplace and the job as well.

A very important point to note is that equality in the organisation should be at the heart of every decision made on behalf of every employee in the organisation. On the other hand, self-actualisation is at the level where the staff member will be competent and require more complicated tasks and the offer to finalise tertiary studies. This employee is concerned with progression and self-improvement.

Managers must place emphasis on the desires of their employees because they frequently change. Once the expectation at one level has been satisfied, there will be the need for a higher-level to be accomplished. Managers must be aware that what inspired an employee in 2015 will not aspire her or him in 2019.

Hertzberg Two-Factor Theory

purported that Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory can also be referred to as motivator–hygiene. Derived from an investigation among accountants and engineers to find out why people have the feelings that they have about work. Herzberg purported that there are five components of a job to obtain satisfaction. They are namely achievement, recognition, the job itself, responsibility and advancement. It is important to note that the hygiene factors are the three lowest of Maslow’s pyramid and motivators are the two highest.

Herzberg pointed out that institutional politics, the management approach, supervision, pay, relationships at work and working conditions are components that act as satisfiers for employees. Herzberg’s theory opens possibilities for personal progression, enhancement and recognition between members of staff. The Herzberg theory further purported that staff members awarded promotion after accomplishing career advancements. Staff members need to be compensated and recognised for outstanding accomplishments. Herzberg’s theory was criticised for assuming that all persons will behave the same way in a homogeneous circumstance.

asserts that when Herzberg two factors come into play at their peak, workers have the ideal position; they are empowered, and there are minute objections. Secondly, when there is the case where the first factor is at its peak and the second factor is at its lowest, there is minimal difference, and alternatively workers display a high level of inspiration. The work is expressed vaguely as a payment. Thirdly, in instances where there is moderate hygiene and motivation is at above average, staff members are work driven with an enormous number of criticisms. The job is exciting and encouraging, but remuneration and employment surroundings are deplorable. Lastly, when both factors are low the position is the worst-case scenario and workers are demotivated with several grievances. This climax shows that a reflection of both factors is of significant importance to meet the expectations and inspire workers for favourable organisational fruition.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

The other theorist is Vroom Expectancy Theory, which is a process view that looks at the existence of motivating persons and the way contentment arises.

(insert correct website URL to link to the specific page and article referenced) made the assumptions that Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is the level a worker is encouraged in acquiring as a result based on a composition of three main components. They are namely:




Valence occurs when a staff member is certain that a definite behaviour will result in a particular reward. If it is a plus, the worker predicts that acquiring it will be successful and the same holds true for the opposite.

Expectancy is the level at which the worker is convinced that she or he can accomplish an end-result. The relationship is her or his ability to execute that particular skill.

Instrumentality goes together with one’s ability to complete a task at a particular stage, which will lead to a product. This is the ability to remunerate. One does not happen without the occurrence of the other.

Valence is a job that the worker would like to perform while instrumentality is a choice you make. If the worker performs the task what are the chances that he or she will achieve the merit? On the other hand, expectancy is the work that is surmountable by the employee.

Job Characteristics Model

The Job Characteristics Model will be a model presented in this project that will unearth what motivates some employees in the work place. According to Job Characteristics Model denotes that creating a properly structured job will lead to workers empowering their inner inspiration and a well-rounded performance, inclusive of peculiar progression. This job design will have an increased standard of performance and decrease truancy, which guarantees a favourable result.

This model determines roles and perceives that they reproduce them to enhance productivity. The Job Characteristics Model has three important elements that are namely:

Core Job Dimensions

Critical Psychological States

Work Outcomes

These all perform coherently to impact staff members’ behaviour in the organisation.

The five core dimensions are as follows:

Skill Variety

Task Identity

Task Significance



Skill variety is a requirement of the roles to have a variety of expertise and capabilities. Task Identity is the dimension that a role needs to finalise tasks from start to finish. Task significance is the influence the role has on the employees. Autonomy is that the employee has alternatives, opportunities and individualism when she or he performs her or his role. Feedback is the straightforward and precise statement obtained from the other staff members in relation to the efficacy of the employee’s output.

Three (3) critical psychological states that involved are namely:

Meaningfulness of the work

Responsibility of the work

Knowledge of Results

Meaningfulness of the work is the ability that the staff member is sensitised to her or his role and the significance of this role. In the central role, scope emphasises a person’s significance of his work. Responsibility of the work outcome is the sense of one’s right to exercise authority for his or her results. Knowledge of results is indicated by the glowing praises received from subordinates and managers alike in relation to a job well done.

When all the states meet the criteria, workers demonstrate high levels of performance, gratification and efficiency. These factors reduce truancy and significantly lessen the possibility of staff resignations, which are extremely important in establishing certainty on the job.

Lastly, Motivational Potential Scores (MPS) elaborated. It is claimed that by examining the main factors derived, the core job dimensions and critical psychological states, a person has the ability to determine the ability for encouraging an employee.

The content theories, the process theories and job characteristics models are all necessary for workers to be encouraged and work to their pivotal point. The aim of these theorists is to ensure that organisations have proper working conditions in place for their workers and then workers will become devoted to their jobs and have a sense of affiliation with the organisation.

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