The Empire In Transition Essay

1. How did the relationship between the king and Parliament change during the early 18th century? – During the early eighteenth century, the British Parliament established a growing supremacy over the King. The two German kings, George I and George II, were not used to English ways, and the Prime minister and his cabinet ministers became the nation’s real executives. They did not hold their control by the king’s favor, but by their ability to control majority in Parliament. So during this time the king and parliament were still together in overseeing the colonies, but they had different roles in governing and controlling them.

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2. How did British officials in the colonies carry out (or fail to carry out) their duties, and what was the effect of their activities? – The British officials in the colonies failed to carry out their duties given to them. Some of these appointed officials wanted to raise their incomes with bribes. For example, customs collectors waived duties on goods when merchants paid them to do so.

The activities carried out by the officials lead American society to corruption. 3. How was England’s hold on the colonies weakened between 1700 and 1775?

England’s hold on the colonies weakened between 1700 and 1775 because the administration of colonial affairs remained decentralized and inefficient. There was no colonial office in London. There was a mere advisory body that had little role in any actual decisions. Real authority rested in the Privy Council, the admiralty, and the treasury, but these agencies were responsible for managing laws at home as well as overseas; no one could concentrate on colonial affairs alone. The character of the royal officials in America also weakened England’s hold on the colonies because most of these officeholders were not able and intelligent.

Appointments generally came as results of bribery or favoritism, not as a reward for distinction. 4. What factors helped promote colonial divisions during this period? – The factors that helped promote colonial divisions during this period were growth of the colonial population, and the fact that the colonies were so far apart from each other that communication was rare between the colonies. 5. What was the Albany Plan, and what did it reveal about colonial unity? – The Albany Plan was proposed by Benjamin Franklin, and this plan said that parliament would set up in America “one general government” for all the colonies.

Each colony could have its own constitution, but would grant to the new general government powers like the authority to govern all relations with the Indians. The central government would have a “president general” appointed and paid by the king and a legislature elected by colonial assemblies. The Struggle for the Continent (103-107) 6. How did the French attempt to secure their hold on the vast areas they claimed in North America? The French attempted to secure their vast areas by being the Indian allies. They told the Indians to attack the British. 7. What caused the Great War for empire, and why is called by that name?

It was caused because the French and Indians were mad because the British got more land; therefore, the Indians and French wanted more land for them. It was called the great war of empire because the English had more land than the French and Indians. 8. How did the Great War for empire become a “truly international conflict”, and how did Britain carry out its part of the struggle? It became a truly international conflict because of the French and Great Britain having many fronts and having wars on many places it became an international conflict. 9. What were the terms of the Peace of Paris of 1763?

The terms were that this treaty ended the seven years war, also known as “the French and Indian war. ” the French also lost Canada, which was dominated by the British side. In order for Spain to recover Cuba they had to give up Florida. The French gave up most of the east of Mississippi except New Orleans. The New Imperialism (107-113) 10. What dilemma faced London policymakers at the end of the Great War for Empire? The dilemma that faced London policymakers was how to fund the British administration and how to defend the North American colonies in long term. 11.

What arguments were raised for and against the post-1763 “territorial imperialism”? How did this change British attitudes towards the colonies? After the American and French Revolutions the British were rendered speechless. The empire on which the sun had never set had fallen and faltered. They were virtually thrown out of America . They realized that they were not omnipotent and they began ruling with more of an iron hand policy. This resulted in worse conditions in the remaining colonies. 12. What initial policy changes occurred when George III ascended the throne, and what were the motives?

George wanted to be in control of everything so removed ‘Whigs’ who had previously governed empire for long time and replaced them with his own coalition that was very unstable 13. What was it about post-1763 British policy that caused colonists in every section to see the Disadvantages rather than the advantages of being part of the British Empire? The Proclamation of 1763 caused colonists in every section to see the disadvantages rather than the advantages of being part of the British Empire because it limited the colonists from western expansion beyond the Appalachian Mountains.

From there, British started implementing taxes on the colonists to which the colonists did not agree. Stirrings of Revolt (113-121) 14. Why did the Stamp Act antagonize the American colonists so much? The Colonists were angered by the Stamp Act because they did not want to pay more taxes for other stamps. While Great Britain still needed to pay off the rest of their debt from the French and Indian War (Seven Years War) the Colonists had their own problems and wanted to be an independent country, they wanted to fend for themselves and not pay a tax. Stamp act imposed tax on printed documents and was taxation without representation that they weren’t willing to pay. 15.

Who sounded the “trumpet of sedition” in Virginia over the Stamp Act? Were there reasons other than those in the proposed resolutions? The Virginia House of Burgesses sounded the “trumpet of sedition” over the Stamp Act. The reason was to challenge the power of tidewater planters who dominated Virginia politics. 16. What role did Samuel Adams play in the American protests? Were his motives different from others? Samuel Adams was the leading figure in fomenting public outrage over the Boston Massacre.

He was the most effective radical in the colonies. John Adams’s motives were different from others because he viewed everything in stern moral terms, since he was a member of an earlier generation with strong ties to New England’s Puritan past. 17. Why was the Tea Act seen by many Americans as a direct threat to themselves and their institutions? The Tea Act was seen by many Americans as a direct threat to themselves and their institutions because it meant that parliament had control over them instead of their own government.

What were the Coercive Acts? How did the Quebec Act help unite the colonies with Boston in opposition to these acts? The Coercive Acts (known as the Intolerable Acts) were a group of acts that were passed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. These acts closed the port of Boston, reduced colonial self-government, allowed royal officers to be tried in other colonies or in England when accused of crimes, and provided for the quartering troops in the colonists’ barns and empty houses.

The Quebec Act helped unite the colonies with Boston in opposition to these acts because many people in the thirteen English colonies considered it a threat. The passage of the Quebec Act convinced some of the m that a plot was afoot in London to subject Americans to the tyranny of the pope. Cooperation and War (121-125) 19. What role was played by the committees of correspondence in the American protests? The Committees of Correspondence organized protests and performed additional political functions. 20. What were the five major decisions made at the First Continental Congress, and what was their significance?

Five major decisions made by the first continental Congress where they rejected a plan for colonial union under British authority, endorsed a statement of grievances, they approved a series of resolutions, recommending that the colonists make military preparations for defense against possible attack by the British, they agreed to non importation, non exportation, and non-consumption as means of stopping all trade with Great Britain, and they formed a “Continental Association” to enforce the agreements, and they agreed to meet the next spring.

These five major decisions indicated that the Continental Congress was considered a continuing organization. 21. What British leaders spoke out in support of the American cause, and what were their reasons for doing so? The Howe brothers supported the American cause. 22. What were the circumstances that led to the fighting at Lexington and Concord? Patterns of Popular Culture (120) The battle of Lexington and concord battle was caused by a set of riots led by the British.

Their purpose was to take the weapons and powder in the communities surrounding Boston. 23. How and why did taverns become a central institution in colonial American social life? Taverns became a central institution in colonial American social life because taverns were the place where everyone (men) met to discuss any political issues. The taverns were also known as the “public houses”. 24.

What circumstances and events helped make taverns central to political life as well? The revolutionary crisis made taverns and pubs become the central meeting places for discussions of the ideas that fueled resistance to British policies. There were also few other places where people could meet and talk openly in public. Almost all politicians found it necessary to visit taverns if they wanted any real contact with the public.

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