The emergence of gas Essay

The reliability and performance of GISShuntov, M. Sh. MisrikhanovK. V. MozgalevA. V. stated that the emergence of gas-insulated switchgear (substations) or GIS in the 1960s the world market of late. They get the experience of a stable and developed country status of their actions is very wide. Rapid and extensive debugging GIS can be explained mainly they are very compact rather than worsen their performance parameters. This solves the problem of land acquisition substation, which usually determine the choice of layout.

Cost GIS cabinet, such as 220 kV, to $ 0.9-160 million for the world market. Considering the cost of land area, and with an appropriate voltage switch compartment occupied, GIS is used in some cases even from the economic point of view is also desirable, which is not always primarily in economics consideration in the choice of venue electrical installation, sometimes the only viable solution. For example, indoor cubicles and switch 220V air-insulated switchgear (OS) covers an area of ‹‹0.1 hectares, while the world’s leading producers of GIS chamber needs to 0.

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0007 – 0.011 ha. Value of the land in large cities, for example, in the United States, each range between $ 110-170 billion or also in the 1980s hectares; land values ‹‹in Japan more than $ 2 billion. Land values ‹‹could double within two years of steady growth trend. Thus, in some cases, much higher than the cost price of land on which the upstanding electrical device. The problem of access to land more and more and more urgent, especially in big cities in Russia. In 2000 the minimum value of the land expert of Moscow reached 6 million? what. Although the 110 kV GIS has been put into trial operation in 1973 in Russia, the use of this switch device is still limited. With the intensification of improving the ecological requirements, land issues and other reasons, the situation will certainly change‚Shuntov, M. Sh. MisrikhanovK. V. MozgalevA. V. had presented that to compactness GIS is very reliable, safe to use and maintenance personnel, shock-proof, easy to install and to participate and spend very little time to prepare the land. No problem for gas-insulated equipment and strong electric field induced audible noise. Analysis showed that the main goal of the power system is reliable power at the lowest cost to complete the independent sector and the appropriateness of the organizational structure of the categories. In order to provide reliable and secure power supply, power companies must negotiate a common goal to provide data exchange to be successful, the development of common reliability standards, and finally, to dispense the legitimate interests of cooperation. Most attention is the reliability. High voltage switching circuit is regarded as a priority the electrical device in other circuits. This can be explained by the fact that power plants and substations are substantially large switching centers in the system and links between systems, they maintain proper electrical power quality, control parameters of the power system of FIG load, and significantly affect the operation of the latter reliability and economic parameters. This makes an important part of the switch circuit and a corresponding switching device structure of the electrical device. In this regard, recent estimates of the level of reliability and GIS will be useful to determine their additional advantage is more widely used in the Russian power system.Shuntov, M. Sh. MisrikhanovK. V. MozgalevA. V. said that practical Analysis of the developed countries switches the display type oil tank, low oil content, electromagnetic, and air ejection switch (except generators) decreases with time, while the vacuum (below 36 kV) and a gas-insulated (Low in the circuit breaker and above 36 kV), the switches, and the GIS are more widely used. Plenty of Western Europe (Great Britain, Switzerland, France, FRG and others) produced by air jet switch data as early as the 1970s, there have been a rated voltage of 100 – 800 kV electrical equipment. In the late 1980s, these manufacturers have turned to gas-insulated switchgear and GIS. Table 1 reflects FRG] produced 110kV switch for dynamic configuration of the network type. Typical large-scale swap of the device’s internal power system shown in Table 2. 2002. As can be seen from Table 2, the ratio (column tank and SF6 circuit breakers and GIS) gas-insulated switchgear is not more than 2-10% of the total number of switches. The use of Russian power system of this device corresponds to the level achieved in developed countries in the 1980s. Special attention should be about 60% of 110–220 kV oil tank with a network switch. Their production in 20 years stopped. This means that a large number of Russian power system needs to be replaced outdated switching equipment.Collect statistical data about the reliability of GIS initiated by the early 1990s, 23 [4] working group CIGRE Study Committee. By 2000 the group has collected and processed 50 percent of the world’s GIS operational data (Table 3) [5]. Table 3 respondents are regional and national power system, companies; the average number of connections are connected to one respondent GIS. Forty-three percent of the total GIS indoor substation 57 percent is outdoors (Table 3). Before we turn to the reliability of GIS features, let us analyze the average number of devices connected to the switch voltage levels under consideration. Number of connections is a very important factor to consider in the selection confirm switch and circuit. Statistics [6] Russian power system substation 110kV or displayed in a large area network supply voltage has a higher number of five connections connecting the secondary side of the high-pressure side doubled. And the ratio of supply center the load center is 1: 3, i.e. a fall to three supply center the load center. Note that the step-down transformer substation high pressure side of a given voltage network load center, while the secondary side of the center of the supply network is considered class. For this reason, the average number of connections to allow the switching circuit has a number of supply and the load center can be evaluated as follows. Suppose the considered network having a voltage level of 30% n center suppliers (0.3n). Thus, n – 0.3n = 0.7n is the number of load center. Then the switching device is connected to the average (10 0.3n + 5 0.7n) n = 6.5, where 10 is the average number of connections to the supply center, the average number of 5 to connect the central load. Comparative figures obtained (6.5 connection) and the average amount given connection voltage electrical installations up to 300 kV (Table 3, in line with commercial law of large numbers of electrical equipment), we will see that they coincide.Type of switch Proportion of switches, %1972 1982 1996Air blast 40 24 13Low oil content 56 58 39SF6 4 18 48total 100 100 100 CITATION MSh03 l 2052 (Shuntov, November 2003)Table 1: different structure of 110kv circuit breaker producedType of switch Proportion of switches, %100kv 220kv 500kvAir blast 11.4 20.4 98.2Tank-type oil 58.8 64.3 -Low-oil-content 21.2 8.7 -SF6 8.6 9.6 1.8total 100.0 100.0 100.0 CITATION MSh03 l 2052 (Shuntov, November 2003)Table 2: structure of 11-550kv circuit breaker of RussiaRated voltage,KVNumber Of countries Of respondents Total number Number of cubicles with switches Service time, cubicle years Mean service life of cubicles, years Mean number of connectionFrom 60 to 100 8 22 1061 6910 56884 8.2 6.5From 100 to 200 26 63 609 3817 34060 8.9 6.3From 200 to 300 18 36 270 1732 16040 9.3 6.4From 300 to 500 17 21 110 689 6774 9.8 6.3From 500to 700 4 11 63 524 4525 8.6 8.3>700 1 1 2 24 200 8.3 12.0total 30 80 2115 13696 118483 8.7 6.5 CITATION MSh03 l 2052 (Shuntov, November 2003)Table 3: The distribution of GIS

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