The doctrine of judicial precedent is essential to the English common law system

Public Bills
Introduced by the government – become Public and General Acts
Private Bills
Usually proposed by a private sponsor e.g. local authority, public corporation and usually affect only that sponsor. E.g. Channel Tunnel Bill
Private Members’ Bills
Introduced by individual MPs – annual lottery
The Literal Rule
The Golden Rule:
Adler v George [1964] 2 QB 7
Re Sigsworth 1935
The Mischief Rule:
Heydon’s Case 1584
Smith v Hughes [1960] 1 WLR 830

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