Experimental Research involves modification of predictor or independent variable and subjects and determination of a causal relationship by the researcher. The research is usually conducted in a lab-like environment. The subjects under study are generally divided into two groups – one group being the experimental or test group for whom the variable under study is changed and the other being the control group for whom the variable is unchanged.
One technique of Experimental Research is Causal Research. Causal Research may be used to find out the impact of a new training program on employee productivity. The subjects will be divided into two groups – one group in which the old training program will be conducted and the other group in which the new training program will be conducted. The two different groups will then be told to carry out a certain task utilizing the knowledge gained in the training programs and their productivity measured.
Non-experimental Research is one in which there is no modification of predictor or independent variable and subjects and determination of a causal relationship by the researcher does not take place. It usually depends on observations to arrive at a certain conclusion.
One technique of Non-Experimental Research is Comparative Research. It may often be utilized in conducting Gender Studies such as effect of gender on handling of conflicts in an organization. Here one group will consist of males and the other group will have females, and the two groups will be observed for handling organizational conflicts in different situations and their behaviors and strategies will be compared in such situations.