Shutter Island

Please choose two movie in (one in Question A) Shutter Island , OR This Is A Robbery (one in question B) The Irishman , OR Training Day whatever you like and answer those questions in below:A) 50%= Editing: choose one movie between Shutter Island , OR This Is A Robbery

Answer ONE of the following questions on editing. Analyze one of the movies you were assigned.
1- Identify which movie you are analyzing . Decide what the BEST description of the editing style is, and explain why you think so, using specific evidence and at least two examples of scenes, which you describe so the scene can be identified  (describe and explain why this is an example of that style): classical cutting, thematic montage editing, cutting to continuity
2- Identify which movie you are analyzing . Pick THREE of the following terms, and identify the shots where you saw the technique (describe the shot). Explain why you think it’s that technique: jump cut, rhythmic editing, eyeline match, matching action, graphic match, cross-cutting, reverse angle shot, establishing shot, sequence shot, wipe/dissolve/fade, master shot, flash forward/flash back

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How can editing emphasize a point or an emotion? By using inserts of an object, like a child’s shoe, or a close-up of a face showing an emotion. Why do some directors insist on having final cut, or always working with the same editor? Editing has a major impact on how the movie turns out. Visit https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shutter_Island_(film)for more details.

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The critic Andre Bazin  prefers realist style with minimal editing, but other critics prefer conspicuous formalist style. What is the role of the audience in these styles? Why? Which style are we most used to?
What editing style do you notice in the movies we’ve seen? Which style do you prefer? Why?

BASIC EDITING CONCEPTS
Look at the definitions of  the following editing terms and think of examples from movies we’ve seen:
Editing styles:
classical cutting : As in classical Hollywood movies, shots are connected to give the impression that time and action flow continuously; viewers don’t notice this “seamless” editing style.
ex. Shot 1 : ( 2 sec.) A long shot of a busy street Shot 2 : (2 sec.) MS-We see an elegant woman riding in the back seat of a car. Shot 3 : (2 sec.) LS- The car ( a Rolls) pulls to the curb and parks, and the woman gets out. Shot 4 : (2 sec.) LS- The woman walks down the street and enters a restaurant Shot 5 : (2 sec.)FS-  The woman is sitting at a restaurant table
subjective (thematic) cutting/montage editing : Shots are connected to emphasize the symbolic relation between shot 1 and shot 2. Editing pace is often fast.

ex. Shot 1 ( 1 sec.) CU- A close-up of a  Rolls Royce hood ornament Shot 2 : (0.5 sec) ECU- An extreme close-up of a woman’s mouth as she puts on lipstick Shot 3 : (1 sec.) CU-  A close-up of a woman’s hand putting a small pistol in a large purse Shot 4 : ( 2 sec.) LS- A long shot of  an elegant woman getting out of the back seat of the Rolls Shot 5 : ( 2 sec.) MS- The woman is sitting at a table in a restaurant
realist editing/cinema verite: Editing is minimal. Instead, there are many long sequence shots. Camera movement follows the dominant around rather than starting and stopping the camera (multiple cuts.) At an extreme end of realism, the camera is set up and films whatever is there. Editing pace is slow; more camera movement replaces cuts.
Shot 1 : ( 10 sec.) LS- A shot of a busy street. After a couple of beats, a Rolls pulls out of traffic and up to the curb. The back door opens and an elegant woman gets out. The camera pans and dollies to follow her down the street to a restaurant, which she enters. The camera looks through the front window to show her sitting down at a table.

EDITING TERMS:
cutting to continuity : Shots are connected to show the relation between the actions, to keep the audience from getting disoriented ex. Shot 1 A long shot of  an elegant woman getting out of back seat of  a  Rolls Shot 2 The woman walks to the ticket counter at an airport Shot 3 A jet takes off Shot 4 The woman is standing  in line to clear customs in Hong Kong
jump cut  Shots jump from one time or location to another without showing the intervening steps Shot 1 In an apartment, a woman kisses a man good-bye and he wishes her a safe trip Shot 2 The woman is standing  in line to clear customs in Hong Kong
rhythmic editing : shots last the same (short) time on screen, one after the other:  shot  shot  shot  shot  shot
parallel editing (cross-cutting): Shots cut back and forth repeatedly between two different places and/or times Shot 1 A woman is standing  in line to clear customs in Hong Kong Shot 2 A man is hailing a taxi in NYC Shot 3 A customs official is opening the woman’s suitcase and finding a bag of white powder Shot 4 The man in NYC gets out of the taxi and is greeted by another woman, who kisses him Shot 5 The woman in shot 1 is being handcuffed
Pace : speed of editing: how long does each shot stay on screen?

cutting ahead of / behind/ at the curve: At the curve: Each shot stays on screen long enough for the viewer to understand what’s happening and take it in; behind the curve: slow editing- the shot lasts a long time, viewers may get bored; ahead of the curve: shots last a few seconds or less, the viewer can barely take in what’s on the screen
eyeline match :  Editing shows what a person is looking at- the camera follows the actor’s gaze ex. Shot 1 We see a child looking to the right Shot 2 We see a man lying face down on the grass (i.e. this is what the child sees)
matching action : One shot shows the beginning of an action, and the next shot shows the continuation of the action Ex. Shot 1 We see two men and a woman start to walk up a large marble staircase in profile position, eye level Shot 2 From the top of the staircase, we see them coming up toward us (high angle, full front)

graphic match  Two shots that show similar objects, making the connection as an analogy Shot 1: A boy throws a ball upward Shot 2 A small bird flies upward at the same angle, continuing the trajectory
reverse angle shot (shot/counter shot) Used to film conversations: Shot 1 We see one actor in quarter turn, as though from the point of view of the listener Shot 2: We see the other actor from the same angle/position; shots alternate, using two cameras, one behind each actor
establishing shot  Shot that shows the audience where we are and what’s happening Ex. Shot showing people in line and customs officials checking suitcases next to a sign that says Welcome to Hong Kong in three languages
re-establishing shot  Shot that shows the audience we are back at the same location as earlier ex. Shot showing a cabin on a lake seen in earlier shots
reaction shot  Second in a series of two shots; in the first shot something happens, and the second shot cuts to a shot showing an actor’s reaction
ex. Shot 1: A man pulls a gun out and raises it Shot 2: A close-up of a woman’s face first looking startled, then  laughing
master shot ( cover shot) A long shot or extreme long shot showing all the action of a complicated event, ex. a car crash, a fight scene, etc. that will not be re-shot because it’s so expensive
sequence shot  A long, continuous shot that includes all the action of a complicated scene that requires excellent acting (ex. a long argument)
set-up The camera placement, lighting and location of objects\actors for a shot
flash back, flash forward, frame narrative : Shots show events that are not in chronological order: a flash back jumps back to past events, a flash forward to future events, and frame narrative starts in the present, jumps back to the past, and then moves forward in time to the point at the start
wipes, dissolves, fades : The shot seems to dissolve or fade away to a black screen  or another shot, or seems to be wiped away left to right to the next shot; used to indicate passage of time or change of place  in older movies
Style: (see examples above) How do directors decide on when to cut from one shot to the next? It depends on their style. What techniques do realist directors use in place of a lot of editing? They use long takes/sequence shots  and a lot of camera movement instead of cutting together a lot of  short shots. 

Formalist directors often have a very fast editing pace, and each shot stays on the screen for a very short time. The audience doesn’t get bored, but may get confused.  Classical (Hollywood) cutting is the seamless inconspicuous style we’re most used to. We hardly notice the transition from one shot or scene to the next. How can editing emphasize a point or an emotion? By using inserts of an object, like a child’s shoe, or a close-up of a face showing an emotion. Why do some directors insist on having final cut, or always working with the same editor? Editing has a major impact on how the movie turns out.
The critic Andre Bazin  prefers realist style with minimal editing, but other critics prefer conspicuous formalist style. What is the role of the audience in these styles? Why? Which style are we most used to?
What editing style do you notice in the movies we’ve seen? Which style do you prefer? Why?

 

B) 50%= Acting: choose one movie between The Irishman , OR Training Day
Analyze the acting  in one of the movies you were assigned, but NOT the movie you picked for the Editing question.    Identify which movie you are analyzing .
Analyze  the acting of TWO of the actors (this term includes men and women) and Include Reader (Viewer) Response theory in your analysis. Do some on line research on other films the actors you are discussing have been in, and what their roles were like in those films. Pick at least two other films. If you have seen one or more of the films, you can use them. What are their characters in  this film  like? How does this compare to other roles they have played? Do you think they have a broad or narrow range? Explain why.

Pick several personality traits of the character, and discuss what techniques the actor uses to portray those traits. Choose the appropriate terms to describe their technique and acting from the following technical terms: expressionist, realist, high energy, low energy, close to the lens, broad range, narrow range, type cast, cast against type, persona, iconography. Discuss how they use this acting technique: facial expression, body language, voice, etc.
1) Actor one: (name)
2) Actor two: (name)

What’s the advantage of using stars ? What does Hitchcock mean when he says “casting is characterization”? What’s the advantage of using relatively unknown actors? When we know an actor who is a star with a distinct persona, who always plays the same kind of role (is type-cast ), we know something about the character they play in the next movie they are in as soon as we see them in their first scene. Less well-known actors leave our expectations more open. They have to demonstrate what the character is like through their acting.

Acting terms and concepts
Actors have different acting styles, or use different styles for different roles.
Some actors are  expressionist : their acting is stylized, not realistic, or showy and entertaining rather than convincing. For example, comedians like Seth Rogen or Jim Carrey don’t  try to convince us they are ordinary people, but they can be fun to watch.
Some actors are realist : their acting is so convincing they make us forget that they are acting, and we see them as real, ordinary  people in real situations. Meryl Streep has won many Oscars for her convincing, realist  acting style in many films. Which actors in the films we’ve seen are more realist?

Some actors are  high-energy  actors who project out to the audience. Their voices are loud and expressive, their facial expression is animated, and their body language is full of energy. Their voice volume is often loud, and their intonation goes up and down a lot. Which actors in the films we’ve seen  were high-energy actors?
There are other  low-energy  actors who work “small” or “close to the lens”  using calmer, flatter voices, and more subdued expressions and body language. Their acting is more subtle, so it works better in close-up (close to the lens). Which actors in the films we’ve seen  were low-energy actors?

Some actors have a  broad range : they can play many different kinds of roles. An actor like Edward Norton, for example, has played very different roles in many different movies such as Fight Club and Birdman. Others have a  narrow range : they may be good in one kind of role only. Some actors are  type-cast : they always play the same kind of role. They tend to have a distinct  persona : they are identified with the kind of personality they usually play (ex. Bruce Willis= tough guy, but not always). Their persona is determined by their iconography : all the roles they’ve played in the films they’ve been in. Actors may also be  cast against type : they play a role that’s the opposite of the role they usually play, but that role is still present in the mind of the audience (Arnold Schwartznegger/ The Terminator being bossed around by five-year-olds in the comedy  Kindergarten Cop )  Some famous character actors are Francis McDormand,  William H. Macy and Steve Buscemi. They are ordinary looking rather than glamorous, and they are known for their acting ability. They play character roles: often not the lead, but a secondary role, and  often  people with a quirky personality.

What’s the advantage of using stars ? What does Hitchcock mean when he says “casting is characterization”? What’s the advantage of using relatively unknown actors? When we know an actor who is a star with a distinct persona, who always plays the same kind of role (is type-cast ), we know something about the character they play in the next movie they are in as soon as we see them in their first scene. Less well-known actors leave our expectations more open. They have to demonstrate what the character is like through their acting.

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