Read “Diverse Voices – Managing Competing Group Norms” and answer the following six questions in paragraph format, click hereto view article. Your final submission must be a 2-3 page paper in APA format What kinds of norms are usually established informally? What kinds of norms are usually established formally? How does the type of group affect development of norms? What happens when a group does not clearly define norms? What happens when group norms are counterproductive? How can you change a group norm?Group Norms Student’s Name Course Professor’s Name Institution Date Informal norms are types of unwritten rules and behavior that govern human behavior. They include social standards and practices, the native language one speaks, how one dresses at home, cultural dances, literature, calligraphy, diabolo, culture, arts, rituals, and traditions. These norms are inbuilt and are administered through community or social group disapproval. One is often unaware of them until they are violated. Informal rules are delivered to children as they grow and continue to acquire expertise (Cooter, 2000). The writer received her informal norms from her parents and the Chinese school she attended. She learned how to speak Mandarin, learned diabolo, Chinese culture and traditions, literature, and art. She also acquired behavioral norms focused on discipline, strong work ethics and discipline for elders. At Taiwan, while visiting her extended family, she experienced politeness, spiritual and collective norms. More often these informal norms conflict with the formal rules. Formal norms are types of written rules, either written in a school handbook, driving manual or in law defended by the government, which govern behavior in society. They include school rules and regulations, state laws, by-laws, and codes. Formal norms act between a range of scales. In creation and implementation of official rules, there is temporary and partial variance in both social and political processes (Hornsey, Jetten, McAuliffe, , & Hogg, 2006).The writer was forced to speak English in school. She had to compromise some of her Chinese norms to fit in her peer group. Formal rules are more severe than informal norms and are institutionalized. They are confined to laws that not only prohibit certain actions and behaviors but also prescribe punishments for breaking such norms. Groups influence the development of norms. How? For instance, one’s character and behavior could be entirely different when they are alone from when in a group. When individuals are in a group, there are certain forces at that shape how they behave while in that group. Influence of how we act as individuals when in a group without us knowing if things are going on behind the curtain impact how we behave. Those things are norms. Examples of such norms that influence how we act in a group include performance norms, appearance norms, social arrangement norms, resource allocation norms (Cooter, 2000). To fit in a particular group, one goes through some process of conformity, which is compliance with standards and rules, either formal or informal. The process of confirmation could take a short time and become fruitful, or it could take lots of time to no success. The writer had to learn to adapt to the different group norms while at home and in school. She had ways of preserving her Chinese cultural norms individually and also adapt to the American norms while in a group. When a group does have clearly defined norms, then it is impossible to predict the behavior of individuals in that group or society. Clear norms give an order to social relation interaction. The communication goes smoothly if the people follow the group norms. Therefore, lack of clear group norms would bring disorder, disrespect, and disagreements among the group members (Bicchieri, 2005). Lack of rules could mean no human society. Man, needs a normative order to live in society because human organism is not sufficiently comprehensive or integrated to give automatic responses that are functionally adequate for the community. A group without norms would be impossible, poor, nasty, brutish and short! Norms give a society a cohesion without which social life is impossible. Groups without a normative order over their members fail to survive because of the lack of internal cooperation. Group norms influence individual attitudes and their motives. The norms have the power to silence any previously accepted general sentiment which members may oppose. Lack of clear norms means lack of control over individual behaviors and attitudes. Counterproductive norms are group norms that prevent the team members, society, or organization from performing or accomplishing its intended purpose by working opposite to what they were initially intended. When group norms are counterproductive, then they lead to inappropriate behaviors from the group members. Counterproductive norms have social exclusion and disapproval, only that the intention behind those attributes is not prosocial and is instead opposite to their original function (Kelley, 1952). Group norms become counterproductive in situations like the principle of social proof, normative influence, and norm transmission. Groups could want to proof themselves better than others by copying their behaviors to proof their social life. Norms may be transmitted deliberately by group members instructing other members on acceptable behavior. They are also carried when members try to copy actions of others that are deemed. A group norm can be changed in various ways. For a norm to change, the whole group or at least majority of members must be reached. A norm can change because of orders from above. For example, a president can change rules of a state by giving an order to other members of the state. One can also change a group norm by discussing and convincing other members on the disadvantages and failures of a particular norm (Jetten, Postmes, & McAuliffe, B. J. (2002). For example, a cultural practice like circumcision could bring diseases and death to the members of the society. This norm could change to another cultural practice that safe and advantageous to all members of the community. The government can change a group norm through legitimacy, a law-abiding body in a country.   References Cooter, R. D. (2000). Three effects of social norms on law: Expression, deterrence, and internalization. Or. L. Rev., 79, 1. Kandori, M. (1992). Social norms and community enforcement. The Review of Economic Studies, 59(1), 63-80. Strahilevitz, L. J. (2003). Social norms from close-knit groups to loose-knit groups. The University of Chicago Law Review, 70(1), 359-372.. Bicchieri, C. (2005). The grammar of society: The nature and dynamics of social norms. Cambridge University Press. Jetten, J., Postmes, T., & McAuliffe, B. J. (2002). ‘We’re all individuals’: group norms of individualism and collectivism, levels of identification and identity threat. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(2), 189-207. Thomas, W. I. (1917). The persistence of primary-group norms in present-day society and their influence in our educational system. Kelley, H. H. (1952). Two functions of reference groups. Readings in social psychology, 2, 410-414. Hornsey, M. J., Jetten, J., McAuliffe, B. J., & Hogg, M. A. (2006). The impact of individualist and collectivist group norms on evaluations of dissenting group members. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(1), 57-68.

Group Norms

 

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Read “Diverse Voices – Managing Competing Group Norms” and answer the following six questions in paragraph format, click hereto view article. Your final submission must be a 2-3 page paper in APA format What kinds of norms are usually established informally? What kinds of norms are usually established formally? How does the type of group affect development of norms? What happens when a group does not clearly define norms? What happens when group norms are counterproductive? How can you change a group norm?Group Norms Student’s Name Course Professor’s Name Institution Date Informal norms are types of unwritten rules and behavior that govern human behavior. They include social standards and practices, the native language one speaks, how one dresses at home, cultural dances, literature, calligraphy, diabolo, culture, arts, rituals, and traditions. These norms are inbuilt and are administered through community or social group disapproval. One is often unaware of them until they are violated. Informal rules are delivered to children as they grow and continue to acquire expertise (Cooter, 2000). The writer received her informal norms from her parents and the Chinese school she attended. She learned how to speak Mandarin, learned diabolo, Chinese culture and traditions, literature, and art. She also acquired behavioral norms focused on discipline, strong work ethics and discipline for elders. At Taiwan, while visiting her extended family, she experienced politeness, spiritual and collective norms. More often these informal norms conflict with the formal rules. Formal norms are types of written rules, either written in a school handbook, driving manual or in law defended by the government, which govern behavior in society. They include school rules and regulations, state laws, by-laws, and codes. Formal norms act between a range of scales. In creation and implementation of official rules, there is temporary and partial variance in both social and political processes (Hornsey, Jetten, McAuliffe, , & Hogg, 2006).The writer was forced to speak English in school. She had to compromise some of her Chinese norms to fit in her peer group. Formal rules are more severe than informal norms and are institutionalized. They are confined to laws that not only prohibit certain actions and behaviors but also prescribe punishments for breaking such norms. Groups influence the development of norms. How? For instance, one’s character and behavior could be entirely different when they are alone from when in a group. When individuals are in a group, there are certain forces at that shape how they behave while in that group. Influence of how we act as individuals when in a group without us knowing if things are going on behind the curtain impact how we behave. Those things are norms. Examples of such norms that influence how we act in a group include performance norms, appearance norms, social arrangement norms, resource allocation norms (Cooter, 2000). To fit in a particular group, one goes through some process of conformity, which is compliance with standards and rules, either formal or informal. The process of confirmation could take a short time and become fruitful, or it could take lots of time to no success. The writer had to learn to adapt to the different group norms while at home and in school. She had ways of preserving her Chinese cultural norms individually and also adapt to the American norms while in a group. When a group does have clearly defined norms, then it is impossible to predict the behavior of individuals in that group or society. Clear norms give an order to social relation interaction. The communication goes smoothly if the people follow the group norms. Therefore, lack of clear group norms would bring disorder, disrespect, and disagreements among the group members (Bicchieri, 2005). Lack of rules could mean no human society. Man, needs a normative order to live in society because human organism is not sufficiently comprehensive or integrated to give automatic responses that are functionally adequate for the community. A group without norms would be impossible, poor, nasty, brutish and short! Norms give a society a cohesion without which social life is impossible. Groups without a normative order over their members fail to survive because of the lack of internal cooperation. Group norms influence individual attitudes and their motives. The norms have the power to silence any previously accepted general sentiment which members may oppose. Lack of clear norms means lack of control over individual behaviors and attitudes. Counterproductive norms are group norms that prevent the team members, society, or organization from performing or accomplishing its intended purpose by working opposite to what they were initially intended. When group norms are counterproductive, then they lead to inappropriate behaviors from the group members. Counterproductive norms have social exclusion and disapproval, only that the intention behind those attributes is not prosocial and is instead opposite to their original function (Kelley, 1952). Group norms become counterproductive in situations like the principle of social proof, normative influence, and norm transmission. Groups could want to proof themselves better than others by copying their behaviors to proof their social life. Norms may be transmitted deliberately by group members instructing other members on acceptable behavior. They are also carried when members try to copy actions of others that are deemed. A group norm can be changed in various ways. For a norm to change, the whole group or at least majority of members must be reached. A norm can change because of orders from above. For example, a president can change rules of a state by giving an order to other members of the state. One can also change a group norm by discussing and convincing other members on the disadvantages and failures of a particular norm (Jetten, Postmes, & McAuliffe, B. J. (2002). For example, a cultural practice like circumcision could bring diseases and death to the members of the society. This norm could change to another cultural practice that safe and advantageous to all members of the community. The government can change a group norm through legitimacy, a law-abiding body in a country.   References Cooter, R. D. (2000). Three effects of social norms on law: Expression, deterrence, and internalization. Or. L. Rev., 79, 1. Kandori, M. (1992). Social norms and community enforcement. The Review of Economic Studies, 59(1), 63-80. Strahilevitz, L. J. (2003). Social norms from close-knit groups to loose-knit groups. The University of Chicago Law Review, 70(1), 359-372.. Bicchieri, C. (2005). The grammar of society: The nature and dynamics of social norms. Cambridge University Press. Jetten, J., Postmes, T., & McAuliffe, B. J. (2002). ‘We’re all individuals’: group norms of individualism and collectivism, levels of identification and identity threat. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(2), 189-207. Thomas, W. I. (1917). The persistence of primary-group norms in present-day society and their influence in our educational system. Kelley, H. H. (1952). Two functions of reference groups. Readings in social psychology, 2, 410-414. Hornsey, M. J., Jetten, J., McAuliffe, B. J., & Hogg, M. A. (2006). The impact of individualist and collectivist group norms on evaluations of dissenting group members. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(1), 57-68.
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Informal norms are types of unwritten rules and behavior that govern human behavior. They include social standards and practices, the native language one speaks, how one dresses at home, cultural dances, literature, calligraphy, diabolo, culture, arts, rituals, and traditions. These norms are inbuilt and are administered through community or social group disapproval. One is often unaware of them until they are violated. Informal rules are delivered to children as they grow and continue to acquire expertise (Cooter, 2000). The writer received her informal norms from her parents and the Chinese school she attended. She learned how to speak Mandarin, learned diabolo, Chinese culture and traditions, literature, and art. She also acquired behavioral norms focused on discipline, strong work ethics and discipline for elders. At Taiwan, while visiting her extended family, she experienced politeness, spiritual and collective norms. More often these informal norms conflict with the formal rules.

Formal norms are types of written rules, either written in a school handbook, driving manual or in law defended by the government, which govern behavior in society. They include school rules and regulations, state laws, by-laws, and codes. Formal norms act between a range of scales. In creation and implementation of official rules, there is temporary and partial variance in both social and political processes (Hornsey, Jetten,  McAuliffe, , & Hogg, 2006).The writer was forced to speak English in school. She had to compromise some of her Chinese norms to fit in her peer group. Formal rules are more severe than informal norms and are institutionalized. They are confined to laws that not only prohibit certain actions and behaviors but also prescribe punishments for breaking such norms.

Groups influence the development of norms. How? For instance, one’s character and behavior could be entirely different when they are alone from when in a group. When individuals are in a group, there are certain forces at that shape how they behave while in that group. Influence of how we act as individuals when in a group without us knowing if things are going on behind the curtain impact how we behave. Those things are norms. Examples of such norms that influence how we act in a group include performance norms, appearance norms, social arrangement norms, resource allocation norms (Cooter, 2000). To fit in a particular group, one goes through some process of conformity, which is compliance with standards and rules, either formal or informal. The process of confirmation could take a short time and become fruitful, or it could take lots of time to no success. The writer had to learn to adapt to the different group norms while at home and in school. She had ways of preserving her Chinese cultural norms individually and also adapt to the American norms while in a group.

When a group does have clearly defined norms, then it is impossible to predict the behavior of individuals in that group or society. Clear norms give an order to social relation interaction. The communication goes smoothly if the people follow the group norms. Therefore, lack of clear group norms would bring disorder, disrespect, and disagreements among the group members (Bicchieri, 2005). Lack of rules could mean no human society. Man, needs a normative order to live in society because human organism is not sufficiently comprehensive or integrated to give automatic responses that are functionally adequate for the community. A group without norms would be impossible, poor, nasty, brutish and short! Norms give a society a cohesion without which social life is impossible. Groups without a normative order over their members fail to survive because of the lack of internal cooperation. Group norms influence individual attitudes and their motives. The norms have the power to silence any previously accepted general sentiment which members may oppose. Lack of clear norms means lack of control over individual behaviors and attitudes.

Counterproductive norms are group norms that prevent the team members, society, or organization from performing or accomplishing its intended purpose by working opposite to what they were initially intended. When group norms are counterproductive, then they lead to inappropriate behaviors from the group members. Counterproductive norms have social exclusion and disapproval, only that the intention behind those attributes is not prosocial and is instead opposite to their original function (Kelley, 1952). Group norms become counterproductive in situations like the principle of social proof, normative influence, and norm transmission. Groups could want to proof themselves better than others by copying their behaviors to proof their social life. Norms may be transmitted deliberately by group members instructing other members on acceptable behavior. They are also carried when members try to copy actions of others that are deemed.

A group norm can be changed in various ways. For a norm to change, the whole group or at least majority of members must be reached. A norm can change because of orders from above. For example, a president can change rules of a state by giving an order to other members of the state. One can also change a group norm by discussing and convincing other members on the disadvantages and failures of a particular norm (Jetten, Postmes, & McAuliffe, B. J. (2002). For example, a cultural practice like circumcision could bring diseases and death to the members of the society. This norm could change to another cultural practice that safe and advantageous to all members of the community. The government can change a group norm through legitimacy, a law-abiding body in a country.

 

 

References

Cooter, R. D. (2000). Three effects of social norms on law: Expression, deterrence, and internalization. Or. L. Rev., 79, 1.

Kandori, M. (1992). Social norms and community enforcement. The Review of Economic Studies, 59(1), 63-80.

Strahilevitz, L. J. (2003). Social norms from close-knit groups to loose-knit groups. The University of Chicago Law Review, 70(1), 359-372..

Bicchieri, C. (2005). The grammar of society: The nature and dynamics of social norms. Cambridge University Press.

Jetten, J., Postmes, T., & McAuliffe, B. J. (2002). ‘We’re all individuals’: group norms of individualism and collectivism, levels of identification and identity threat. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(2), 189-207.

Thomas, W. I. (1917). The persistence of primary-group norms in present-day society and their influence in our educational system.

Kelley, H. H. (1952). Two functions of reference groups. Readings in social psychology, 2, 410-414.

Hornsey, M. J., Jetten, J., McAuliffe, B. J., & Hogg, M. A. (2006). The impact of individualist and collectivist group norms on evaluations of dissenting group members. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(1), 57-68.

 

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