Question & Answer: 2. Sketch System A according to the following criteria: System A has energy levels spaced 4 aJ…..

spaced 4 aJ apart with a ground state of 0 aJ (Recall that 1 aJ 1 x 1018 J). In this system, 8 particles are in the lowest level, 4 particles are in the first excited state, 2 particles are in the second excited state, and 1 particle is in the third excited state. (12) 2. Sketch System A according to the following criteria: System A has energy levels U= Show the system undergoing expansion work by indicating how the energy levels and/or the number of particles in the energy levels might change. Will the temperature of the system stay the same, increase, or decrease? thermodynamic probability stay the same, increase or decrease? Will the

2. Sketch System A according to the following criteria: System A has energy levels spaced 4 aJ apart with a ground state of 0 aJ (Recall that 1 aJ = 1 times 10^-18 J). In this system, 8 particles are in the lowest level, 4 particles are in the first excited state, 2 particles are in the second excited state, and 1 particle is in the third excited state. U = ______ U = ____ Show the system undergoing expansion work by indicating how the energy levels and/or the number of particles in the energy levels might change. Will the temperature of the system stay the same, increase, or decrease? ________ Will the thermodynamic probability stay the same, increase or decrease? _________

Expert Answer

Answer:

The energy of particle at each level = En = -Rth (1/n2 )

-RH is a constant value of 2.179 x 10-18 Joules

at the ground level 8particle E1 = 8X 2.179X10-18 = -17.432 X 10-18 J

level 2 = 4 particles = E2 = 4X 2.179X10-18 X 4 X (1/4) =-10.87X 10-18J

lvl 3 = 2 particles = E3 = 2 X 2.179X10-18 X 16 X (1/9) = -7.74 X10-18J

lvl 4 = 1 particles = E3 = 1 X 2.179X10-18 X 64 X (1/16) =- 8.716 X 10-18J

DE1-2 = -10.87X 10-18J -( -17.432 X 10-18 J)= 6.56 X 10-18 J

DE1-3 =  -7.74 X10-18J -( -17.432 X 10-18 J)= 9.69 X 10-18 J

DE1-4 =  – 8.716 X 10-18J -( -17.432 X 10-18 J)= 8.716 X 10-18 J

total E change = 24.966X 10-18 J

E is positive, hence the temperature of the system will increase due to expansion work

the thermodynamic probability will increase

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