) Provide an example of a research question that could be answered using a research design that is both cross-sectional and exploratory. 2) Provide an example of a hypothesis that could be tested using a research design that is conclusive and longitudinal.

Research Design: Cross-sectional and exploratory

A cross-sectional research design is a concept used to in data collection to establish evidence based on a sample of a population having same characteristics with little difference in variables. It can take a sample population but the difference could be on age groups. The design can also assess one variable within different groups which have similarities in other features. Conversely, exploratory research design is used to examine facts and findings in a data but does not give specific conclusions on the data collected (Rindfleisch, Malter, Ganesan, & Moorman, 2008). Exploratory research design does not offer conclusive or final solutions to the problem under study. For instance, a research question, “How do you identify the percentage of female diagnosed with HIV/AIDS?”  In this research question, the cross-sectional design will sample the women who have been diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and categorize them among the groups like 15-20 years, 16-20 years, 21-25 years, and 25-30years and so on. As such, a percentage will then be calculated in the various age groups selected. The same research question can be studied using the exploratory research design. In this case, the exploratory research design intends to establish the causes of HIV/AIDS among the various groups of females, from youths to the elderly. It would also seek to find the possible solutions like reduction and prevention of the disease without giving a final or a conclusive answer.

Research design: Conclusive and Longitudinal

Conclusive research design set to test the research hypothesis and provide findings which can be used to reach a final decision. Consequently, longitudinal research design involves the use of repeated observations over a given period of time (Rindfleisch, Malter, Ganesan, & Moorman, 2008). It is used over a long period of time and tracks the item being observed over a lifetime to establish definite facts. For instance, a research question, “What are the effects of HIV/AIDS on its victims?” conclusive research design will establish the consequences of AIDS on the victims like death and loss of weight. Longitudinal study will hence explore the effects the patients show in the course of their lives and within the stages of HIV/AIDS. It is these effects that will give a conclusive answer to the research question.


Rindfleisch, A., Malter, A. J., Ganesan, S., & Moorman, C. (2008). Cross-sectional versus longitudinal survey research: Concepts, findings, and guidelines. Journal of Marketing Research45(3), 261-279.


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