Provide an example from the literature of a multi-item measurement scale that could produce a response bias if not used appropriate (cite your measure appropriately). Explain how would you know if your scale is valid and reliable?

Multi-item measurement scale

A multi-item measurement scale is projected to come up with the analysis of a respondent attitude towards more than a single attribute related to the stimulus object hence considered as a rating scale comprised of numerous items consisting of a separate statement that should be evaluated. Examples of multi-item scales involve; Likert, Semantic Differential, and Staple scales which are used in examining the attitude of the respondent towards a particular object (Choe, Lee, & Yoon, 2012). Moreover, developing a multi-item measurement scale requires a technical expertise; thus, the paper will discuss Likert scale as a type of a multi-item measurement scale that is likely to create a bias feedback when not utilized appropriately. It is used to measure the attitude as the respondents are required to outline the degree of agreement or disagreement about statements related to the stimulus objects.

According to “Phil” Klaus, P., & Maklan, S. (2012), the type of information derived from the Likert scale is viewed as an interval; hence, the level comprises of order, description and distance characteristics where description highlights that unique labels given to each value in the scale. On the other hand, order describes the strategic position of the descriptor while distance states the differences existing between the descriptors and are typically measured in units. Likert scale produces an extreme responding that is a form of response bias that makes respondents only to select the most severe options or answers available. For instance, in a given survey using the scale with solutions ranging from 1 to 6, it is likely that the respondent will provide feedbacks as 1’s or 6’s. The scale should turn out to be reliable if it can come up with the same measurement when the user repeatedly measures the same unchanged objects or events. The validity will be known when the proportions being estimated is an abstract construct that is concluded from directly evident circumstances.


Choe, B. D., Lee, D. H., & Yoon, S. D. (2012). A multi-item measurement scale of healthcare service quality: an evaluation indicators of healthcare certification. Journal of the Korean society for quality management, 40(3), 381-393.

“Phil” Klaus, P., & Maklan, S. (2012). EXQ: a multiple-item scale for assessing service experience. Journal of Service Management, 23(1), 5-33.

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