pnt Essay

Camera head is needed for a cameraman to make video recording that utilizes camera innovation. The reason for this type of pan-and-tilt system is to build a camera head that can be controlled by PC. Cameraman will watch a screen that displays images and visuals from camera placed on the camera head and use the image as a feedback to pan-and-tilt the camera around using a remote control or joystick [8]. This framework is furnished with two servo motors. This is on the grounds that a servo motor can rotate 180° angle definitely [9].

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There are many existing advancements, particularly in the area of motion control, PC and computerized control techniques are employed [10]. In any case, this old craftsmanship framework is generally not constant development control framework utilized for exceptional shooting consequences for most edge. Other than that, the past craftsmanship framework that includes controlling electronic camera development for catch scenes progressively, camera development has been embedded into the PC before shot and pulled back when shot.

Despite that, shots can be altered when the activity is performed by embedding certain directions into the PC by means of the PC console.

The arrangement of the creation is preferred over the traditional pan-and-tilt framework. Cameraman have two methods to pan-and-tilt the camera whether to use an electronic stylus where the cameraman can grasp and slide over the digital tablet screen or use the finger on the touch screen.

This strategy is most fitting because with an advanced touch screen which can give input to the PC and the PC can then flag the servo motor to modify the camera to move to an optimal position. Moreover, the innovation connecting the camera head to the PC will allow the pan-and-tilt motor to be controlled accurately and precisely.

B.Camera Positioning System

A research group from University of Illinois’s Renewable Energy & Turbulent Environment (RETE) designed a camera positioning system for particle tracking research [11].

According to[11] past models have not treated the homing and auto-calibration of the XY traversing component in much detail. At present, the in-plane situating framework does not have a homing capacity and alignment is done physically. Moreover, the angular position control from the pan-and-tilt heads are open-loop and does not provide exact angular positioning.

This approach is used as a guide because it also applies a pan-and-tilt mechanism using servo and stepper motor. The cameras are able to translate, pan, and tilt with a high resolution of movement.

C.Pan & Tilt

Previously, there are many researches that develop pan-and-tilt mechanisms. The designs came with various function, material used and degree-of-freedom (DOF).

A pan-and-tilt mount created in [12] aimed to provide pan-and-tilt movement for mount mechanisms. This pan-and-tilt mount were remotely controlled with precision positioning and repositioning. Previously, in addition to hand-operated devices, pan-and-tilt mechanisms were remotely operated by A.C. servo motor systems or reversible D.C. shunt motors. The servo motor pan-and-tilt systems are a major improvement to the D.C shunt motor system. However, the downside is the high economic cost to generate a servomotor system. This system is capable of positioning accuracy up to 1/2 degrees or arc but has a poor rotational speed control. The system is unable to pan over 360 ° travel in any one direction.

In [13], a camera-orienting mechanism with characteristics equivalent to human eyes was designed. Parallel components with autonomous pan-and-tilt motions [14], [15] have been proposed to overcome the problem of axes coupling. Unlike other pan–tilt mechanisms that require various kinds of joints or even multi-DOF joints, spherical mechanisms [16], [17] provide pan-and-tilt motions by using only pin joints. The two axes are less coupled. Sensors can be placed at independent joints to directly measure their respective pan-and-tilt angles. Compared with existing camera-orienting approaches that use perpendicular actuation, the proposed design employs parallel actuation to achieve perpendicular pan-and-tilt motion. The major limitation of camera orientation is the ability to design a mechanism that is comparable to human eyes in terms of speed, size and reliability.

Pan-tilt mechanism has also been used in UAVs. Johnson and Jakobsen used pan-tilt and roll mechanism called gamble in their UAV research [18]. In their research they used Georgia Tech’s UAV, the GTMax. They developed an architecture for controlling the pan-tilt and roll camera system of the GTMax. The camera was is fixed on a large gimbal. All three axes were driven by a servo motor and the position was obtained via optical encoders. They used a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller for position control of the servo motors which is more advantageous compared to other controllers.

Pan-tilt mechanism cameras also can be applied in medical applications. An insertable surgical pan tilt imaging device was developed by Hu et al. [19]. Since this device is a surgical device, they developed a tiny pan-tilt mechanism provided by two very small DC servo motors with a camera which was used in laparoscopic surgery and the video is transferred to a monitor. A remote control was developed by Hu et al. for this camera system so that an operator can easily intervene during the operation. The advantage of this approach is pan-and-tilt functions provide a large imaging volume not restricted by the fulcrum point of standard laparoscope. This research also using pan-tilt mechanism to pan-and-tilt the surgical camera inside human body and the pan-and-tilt camera can be control using a remote control. The remote-control operation requires no specialized operator training since there is only 2 degree of freedom, which are pan and tilt.

All of the above research use similar pan-and-tilt mechanisms which used servo motor for the pan-and-tilt operation. The pan-and-tilt head or camera mount can be controlled using a remote control. Mostly, they used two servo motor for pan-and-tilt respectively which result in two degree of freedom.

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