PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS Chapter 8 – Sustaining Biodiversity Saving Species and Ecosystems 1. Zoos and aquariums can be used to protect wild species and serve as gene banks. a. True b. False 2. One of the causes of extinction is human population growth. a. True b. False 3. Pollution from human activities primarily affects human health, with any effects on the environment are small in comparison. a. True b. False 4. Nonnative species thrive in new ecosystems because they have superior gene pools. a. True b. False 5. The world’s wild species provide ecological resources and services that keep us alive and support human economies. a. True b. False 6. It is estimated that between one-fourth and one-half of the world’s plant and animal species will suffer premature extinction by the end of this century. a. True b. False 7. The African honeybee, or killer bee, is a deliberately introduced invasive species. a. True b. False 8. Both mature male lions and elephants bring in more money as ecotourism attractions than if they are poached for their hide and ivory. a. True b. False 9. Species can be more vulnerable to storms and forest fires because of habitat fragmentation. a. True b. False 10. The United States Endangered Species Act offers protection only for species located within United States boundaries. a. True b. False 11. The butchering and eating of some forms of bushmeat has helped to spread diseases such as HIV/AIDS and the Ebola virus. a. True b. False 12. What is currently the most important threat to the survival of polar bears? a. pollutants driven by currents from oceans in more temperate climate zones b. hunting by native populations c. disruptions from tourism d. limited hunting opportunities due to less floating ice e. slow extinction as a result of documented global population cycles 13.What does the increase in incidents of polar bears visiting human settlements indicate? a. Polar bear populations are not declining b. Limited prey is driving the bears to seek food in human settlements c. Polar bear populations are increasing d. Human food is more appealing to polar bears than wild seals e. Polar bear populations are increasing and human food is more appealing 14. The current rate of extinction is ____ compared to the rate that existed before humans arrived on the earth. a. about the same b. slightly less c. up to 1,000 times higher d. almost 1,000 times lower e. fluctuating wildly 15. An endangered species is best described as any species that ____. a. has fewer than two individuals remaining b. is in danger of becoming rare c. will soon become extinct in all or part of its range d. may eventually become threatened e. is considered economically important 16. The species–area relationship suggests that if 90% of a coral reef is lost, then ____. a. 90% of the species utilizing the reef will go extinct b. 100% of the species will go extinct c. 50% of the species will go extinct d. speciation of invasive animals will increase e. the habitat will forever become fragmented 17. Why is it important to know the background and projected extinction rates for global species? a. At least 25% and as many as 50% of the world’s roughly 2 million identified animal and plant species could vanish b. The speciation rate of pests could increase to 1,000 times the background rate. c. More species are becoming endangered in well-populated and developed countries. d. More species are becoming threatened in well-populated and developed countries. e. Background extinction rates are rising at an accelerating rate 18. Some biodiversity experts advise us to focus our biodiversity conservation efforts on ____. a. slowing high rates of extinction in biodiversity hotspots b. slowing extinction in temperature deciduous forests c. saving single important species d. saving the polar bear which is the most endangered of all creatures e. saving fish populations because of their importance as a food source for humans 19. While the hide of a male lion in Kenya will bring in $1,000, if the same male lion lives to age seven, he would bring in approximately ____ ecotourist dollars. a. a few hundred b. a few thousand c. $5,000 d. $515,000 e. $1,000,000 20. Various plant species provide value as food crops, fuelwood, lumber, and paper from trees, and useful scientific knowledge. What term best describes this type of value? a. natural benefits b. ecotourist value c. ecologic provisions d. economic services e. bioprospecting 21. A bio-prospector is someone who ____. a. searches for plants that can be used as biofuels b. tests plants and animals in various ecosystems to find chemicals that are potentially useful as medicinal drugs c. searches for new way to economically exploit animals d. prospects for wild organic foods e. is a biologists and medical doctor who works for private industry 22. What is the cause of extinction and reduction in wild species that compete for resources with humans? a. hunting similar prey b. use of pesticides that inadvertently kill wild species c. human population growth d. pollution e. invasive species 23. The greatest threat to most species is ____. a. loss of habitat b. water pollution c. parasites d. sport hunting e. global drought conditions 24. The greatest threat to species habitat loss is ____. a. climate change b. pollution c. tropical deforestation d. desertification e. invasive species 25. What is a threat to 60% of the U.S. wildlife refuges? a. ecotourism and hunting b. invasive species c. human population growth d. habitat fragmentation e. mining, oil drilling, and use of off–road vehicles 26. Kudzu was deliberately introduced to the U.S. to help ____. a. stabilize honey bee populations b. eliminate other invasive species c. control soil erosion d. manage colony collapse disorders in various species e. produce sustainable food sources 27. HIPPCO is ____. a. an acronym that summarizes the Endangered Species Act goals b. an acronym to summarize the direct causes of extinction resulting from human activities c. the name of an ecotourism company in Africa that specializes in hippopotamus sightings d. an acronym to summarize the health care right to privacy act e. a trading company in Africa that sells hippopotamus hides 28. The ‘extinction capital’ of the United States is ____. a. Florida, with 63% of its species at risk b. Key West, with 72% of its species at risk c. California, with 63% of its species at risk d. Hawaii, with 63% of its species at risk e. Puerto Rico, with 63% of its species at risk 29. The major factor in the population explosion of the zebra mussel in the Great Lakes region is ____. a. the zebra mussel’s specialist ecological niche b. because it has a hard shell that protects it from predation c. its ability to latch onto to boats and travel to new locations d. the illegal importation for restaurant food e. its rapid reproductive rate and its lack of natural enemies that might control its population 30. The decline in approximately 70% of the world’s bird species is particularly alarming to scientists because ____. a. this is the first time any bird species have been threatened with declining numbers b. the cause is a non-human activity that scientists cannot determine. c. only land birds are affected, while water birds seem to be maintaining normal population numbers d. birds are excellent environmental indicators e. bird watching now generates a significant portion of tourist dollars in some countries 31. Establishing international treaties that ban the transfer of potentially harmful species from one country to another is a good way to control ____. a. overexploitation b. poaching c. population growth d. habitat fragmentation e. invasive species 32. The international illegal trade in wildlife brings in an average of ____. a. $600,000 per year b. $1.8 million per hour c. $1.1 million per year d. $500,000 per hour e. $100 million per year 33. According to a 2013 study by the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD), almost ____ of the ESA–protected species are recovering at the rate projected in their recovery plans. a. none b. 90% c. 35% d. 20% e. 10% 34. Why has the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity been slow? a. lack of acceptance by the United Nations b. war and conflict in many biodiversity hotspots c. inability of poor countries to enforce the conventions d. lack of ratification by key counties including the United States e. difficulties in controlling poaching 35. The Endangered Species Act was designed to ____. a. catalogue and protect threatened species from extinction in the United States b. identify and protect endangered species only in the United States c. identify and protect endangered species in the United States and abroad d. develop recovery plans for listed species more quickly e. emphasize the protection of biological diversity and ecosystem functioning 36. Egg pulling refers to ____. a. techniques used to extend the breeding span of captured birds b. collecting eggs from the wild and hatching them in zoos or research centers c. using fertility drugs to increase productivity d. production of hybrids in captive breeding programs e. collecting unfertilized eggs from ovaries of wild animals 37. Captive breeding programs in zoos ____. a. eliminate the need to preserve critical habitats b. can be used for most species except mammals c. increase the genetic variability of species d. require the captive population to number between 100 and 500 e. are largely unsuccessful 38. Recent genetic research indicates that ____ or more individuals are needed for an endangered species to maintain its capacity for biological evolution. a. 10 b. 100 c. 1,000 d. 10,000 e. 100,000 39. A small orchid plant that is found only on a tiny island in the Atlantic Ocean, just off the coast of Florida, has been listed as an endangered species. Which agency was responsible for listing this plant as endangered? a. National Marine Fisheries Service b. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service c. U.S. Botanical Survey d. International Commission on Rare Plants e. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species 40. What does the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) specifically address? a. poaching of all protected wild species b. determining which species become listed as threatened c. banning the hunting, capturing, and selling of threatened or endangered species d. establishing trade laws for all economically important wild species e. legally requiring governments to reduce the global rate of biodiversity loss 41. What agency or group is responsible for studying the status of threatened dolphins and whether it should be listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act? a. Environmental Protection Agency b. CITES c. National Marine Fisheries Service d. Convention on Biological Diversity e. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 42. What HIPPCO activity is the main threat to the beaches where endangered sea turtles breed?? a. invasive species b. pollution c. Fragmentation d. climate change e. use of pesticides 43. What is to the best approach to preserving genetic information for endangered plant species? a. national laws b. protected areas c. wildlife refuges d. arboretums e. seed banks 44. When it comes to wood products, what is the most important step you can take to help protect endangered species? a. Do not buy furs or ivory b. Do not buy wood products from tropical or old-growth forests c. Do not buy pet animals from the tropics d. Support your local forester e. Avoid having campfires Chapter 9 – Sustaining Biodiversity – Saving Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services 45. Forest fires cause the germination of seeds of certain tree species. a. True b. False 46. A tree plantation, also called a tree farm or commercial forest, is a managed forest containing only one or two species of trees that are all of the same age. a. True b. False 47. Removing dams and allowing rivers to flow freely can help restore biodiversity. a. True b. False 48. Traditional medicines are derived mostly from plant species that are native to forests. a. True b. False 49. Water evaporating from trees and vegetation in tropical rain forests has little effect on the amount of rainfall there. a. True b. False 50. Commercial forests have the same biodiversity as old-growth forests. a. True b. False 51. Conservation concessions involve governments or private conservation organizations paying nations for agreeing to preserve their natural resources. a. True b. False 52. One way to help sustain terrestrial biodiversity would be to map the world’s terrestrial ecosystems and create an inventory of the species contained in each of them, along with the ecosystem services they provide. a. True b. False 53. When managed properly, ecotourism can be a useful form of reconciliation ecology, but without proper controls, it can lead to degradation of popular sites if visitors overrun them. a. True b. False 54. Overfishing is an example of the tragedy of the commons. a. True b. False 55. Ocean acidification is the result of ____. a. acid rain? b. the ocean absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere c. eutrophication d. ecosystem changes induced by overfishing e. warming ocean water 56. Which type of forest is considered a reservoir of biodiversity? a. old-growth b. second-growth c. commercial d. tree plantation e. selective 57. Removing all the trees from an area is called a ____. a. selective-cut b. clear-cut c. second-cut d. strip-cut e. purge-cut 58. A(n) ____ is an extremely hot fire that leaps from treetop to treetop, burning whole trees. a. surface fire b. crown fire c. ecotone fire d. strip fire e. clear fire 59. A tree harvesting method involving cutting intermediate-aged or mature trees singly or in small groups is called ____. a. clear-cutting b. strip cutting c. selective cutting d. patch cutting e. landscape cutting 60. Sustainable management and harvesting of forests are certified by the ____. a. U.S. Forest Service b. California Conservation Core c. Forest Stewardship Council d. Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species e. Endangered Species Act 61. Tropical forests in the Amazon and other South American countries are cleared or burned primarily ____. a. due to urban sprawl b. to enable the construction of major highways c. for lumber needed in growing cities d. for cattle grazing and large soybean plantations e. to enable the expansion of mining 62. What could governments do regarding deforestation to be consistent with the full-cost pricing principle of sustainability? a. Increase taxes on fuel to drive up the price of timber b. Replace subsidies/tax breaks that encourage deforestation with forest-sustaining economic rewards c. Outlaw logging d. Build logging roads so companies can access forest land more easily e. Ban the use of cardboard and other paper products 63. Gray wolves disappeared from Yellowstone National Park because ____. a. their habitat has severely degraded b. of a series of devastating crown fires c. elk were overhunted by humans d. they were killed by humans e. a virus wiped out the population 64. Natural ecological restoration of riparian areas can happen if ____. a. enough chemical fertilizer is applied b. there is aggressive planting of native trees and shrubs c. the native fish in the adjacent stream or river are restocked d. overgrazed land is protected through rotational grazing e. cloud seeding is performed 65. According to the National Park Service, ____ degrades scenic views in many U.S. national parks more than 90% of the time. a. soil erosion b. logging c. forest fires d. air pollution e. acid rain 66. The wolf reintroduction was based partly on its importance as a(n) ____. a. indicator species b. generalist species c. fur-bearing species d. keystone species e. predator on grizzly bear cubs 67. According to your textbook, one of the biggest problems for U.S. national and state parks today is ____. a. popularity b. nearby human activities c. forest clearing d. poaching e. soil erosion 68. In debt-for-nature swaps, participating countries ____. a. act as custodians of protected forest reserves in return for foreign aid or debt relief b. take out loans to finance nature preserves c. sell nature preserves to industries to pay off debts d. invest in ecologically sound companies e. repay debts with raw natural resources rather than currency 69. Which practice would make forestry less sustainable? a. Reduce road-building in forests b. Stop clear-cutting on steep slopes. c. Clear old-growth forests for tree plantations d. Include ecosystem services of forests in estimates of their economic value e. Leave most standing dead trees and larger fallen trees for wildlife habitat and nutrient cycling 70. Strips of vegetation along stream or rivers are called ____. a. rangelands b. transition forests c. second-growth boundaries d. lianas e. riparian zones 71. What action involves returning a degraded habitat or ecosystem to a condition as similar as possible to its natural state in cases where this is feasible? a. rehabilitation b. reintroduction c. replacement d. artificial construction e. Restoration 72. ____ involves turning a degraded ecosystem into a functional or useful ecosystem without trying to restore it to its original condition. a. Replacement b. Restoration c. Reintroduction d. Rehabilitation e. Artificial construction 73. ____ involves replacing a degraded ecosystem with another type of ecosystem. a. Rehabilitation b. Replacement c. Artificial construction d. Restoration e. Reintroduction 74. A certain lake in the arid west contains an endangered species of fish. The legal status of this fish required water diversions out of the river feeding the lake to be decreased substantially. About 10 years following this decree, the declining cottonwood forest and canopy along the riverbanks was noted to be recovering. This situation illustrates the potential effectiveness of ____. a. the species approach to sustaining biodiversity b. the ecosystem approach to sustaining biodiversity c. cottonwood trees as part of all stream recovery programs d. water as a solution to species decline e. fish as indicator species 75. Focusing on establishing and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people live, work, or play to increase our beneficial environmental impact – by learning how to share some of the spaces we dominate with other species – is called____. a. biocultural replacement b. urban sprawl c. reintroduction d. reconciliation ecology e. the ecosystem approach 76. One problem that threatens aquatic biodiversity is the deliberate or accidental introduction of ____ into coastal waters, wetlands, and lakes throughout the world. a. new sources of food for aquatic organisms b. hundreds of harmful invasive species c. excess oxygen d. skewed sex ratios e. groundwater 77. Since we began burning fossil fuels in large quantities during the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, there has been a ____ in the average acidity of surface ocean water. a. 170% rise b. 30% drop c. 3% rise d. 30% rise e. 300% rise 78. What activity involves dragging huge nets weighted down with chains and steel plates over the ocean floor to harvest a few species of bottom fish and shellfish? a. deep sea aquaculture b. long-line fishing c. drift-net fishing d. purse-seine fishing e. trawler fishing 79. One reason protecting marine biodiversity is difficult is that ____. a. much of the damage to the oceans and other bodies of water is not visible to most people b. most species in marine ecosystems are keystone species c. marine ecosystems are much more affected by urban sprawl d. marine ecosystems cannot be restored e. most of the world’s ocean area lies within the legal jurisdiction of one country or another 80. A forested slope is set to be logged. Which method will minimize erosion and protect the stream at the base of the slope from being polluted by excess sediment? a. strip cutting b. clear-cutting c. surface cutting d. second-growth cutting e. crown cutting ****************************************************************************** END OF TAKEHOME QUESTIONS ****************************************************************************** [Pls Note: The online version of this test will be available on the date indicated on the syllabus.]

  1. A
  2. A
  3. B
  4. A
  5. A
  6. A
  7. A
  8. A
  9. A
  10. B
  11. B
  12. D
  13. B
  14. C
  15. C
  16. A
  17. E
  18. A
  19. D
  20. E
  21. B
  22. B
  23. A
  24. E
  25. C
  26. C
  27. B
  28. D
  29. E
  30. D
  31. E
  32. A
  33. D
  34. D
  35. C
  36. B
  37. D
  38. D
  39. B
  40. C
  41. E
  42. C
  43. E
  44. B
  45. A
  46. A
  47. A
  48. A
  49. B
  50. B
  51. A
  52. A
  53. A
  54. A
  55. B
  56. A
  57. B
  58. B
  59. C
  60. E
  61. D
  62. B
  63. D
  64. D
  65. D
  66. D
  67. A
  68. B
  69. A
  70. E
  71. A
  72. Remediation
  73. B
  74. B
  75. C
  76. B
  77. D
  78. E
  79. B
  80. A

 

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PLEASE ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS Chapter 8 – Sustaining Biodiversity Saving Species and Ecosystems 1. Zoos and aquariums can be used to protect wild species and serve as gene banks. a. True b. False 2. One of the causes of extinction is human population growth. a. True b. False 3. Pollution from human activities primarily affects human health, with any effects on the environment are small in comparison. a. True b. False 4. Nonnative species thrive in new ecosystems because they have superior gene pools. a. True b. False 5. The world’s wild species provide ecological resources and services that keep us alive and support human economies. a. True b. False 6. It is estimated that between one-fourth and one-half of the world’s plant and animal species will suffer premature extinction by the end of this century. a. True b. False 7. The African honeybee, or killer bee, is a deliberately introduced invasive species. a. True b. False 8. Both mature male lions and elephants bring in more money as ecotourism attractions than if they are poached for their hide and ivory. a. True b. False 9. Species can be more vulnerable to storms and forest fires because of habitat fragmentation. a. True b. False 10. The United States Endangered Species Act offers protection only for species located within United States boundaries. a. True b. False 11. The butchering and eating of some forms of bushmeat has helped to spread diseases such as HIV/AIDS and the Ebola virus. a. True b. False 12. What is currently the most important threat to the survival of polar bears? a. pollutants driven by currents from oceans in more temperate climate zones b. hunting by native populations c. disruptions from tourism d. limited hunting opportunities due to less floating ice e. slow extinction as a result of documented global population cycles 13.What does the increase in incidents of polar bears visiting human settlements indicate? a. Polar bear populations are not declining b. Limited prey is driving the bears to seek food in human settlements c. Polar bear populations are increasing d. Human food is more appealing to polar bears than wild seals e. Polar bear populations are increasing and human food is more appealing 14. The current rate of extinction is ____ compared to the rate that existed before humans arrived on the earth. a. about the same b. slightly less c. up to 1,000 times higher d. almost 1,000 times lower e. fluctuating wildly 15. An endangered species is best described as any species that ____. a. has fewer than two individuals remaining b. is in danger of becoming rare c. will soon become extinct in all or part of its range d. may eventually become threatened e. is considered economically important 16. The species–area relationship suggests that if 90% of a coral reef is lost, then ____. a. 90% of the species utilizing the reef will go extinct b. 100% of the species will go extinct c. 50% of the species will go extinct d. speciation of invasive animals will increase e. the habitat will forever become fragmented 17. Why is it important to know the background and projected extinction rates for global species? a. At least 25% and as many as 50% of the world’s roughly 2 million identified animal and plant species could vanish b. The speciation rate of pests could increase to 1,000 times the background rate. c. More species are becoming endangered in well-populated and developed countries. d. More species are becoming threatened in well-populated and developed countries. e. Background extinction rates are rising at an accelerating rate 18. Some biodiversity experts advise us to focus our biodiversity conservation efforts on ____. a. slowing high rates of extinction in biodiversity hotspots b. slowing extinction in temperature deciduous forests c. saving single important species d. saving the polar bear which is the most endangered of all creatures e. saving fish populations because of their importance as a food source for humans 19. While the hide of a male lion in Kenya will bring in $1,000, if the same male lion lives to age seven, he would bring in approximately ____ ecotourist dollars. a. a few hundred b. a few thousand c. $5,000 d. $515,000 e. $1,000,000 20. Various plant species provide value as food crops, fuelwood, lumber, and paper from trees, and useful scientific knowledge. What term best describes this type of value? a. natural benefits b. ecotourist value c. ecologic provisions d. economic services e. bioprospecting 21. A bio-prospector is someone who ____. a. searches for plants that can be used as biofuels b. tests plants and animals in various ecosystems to find chemicals that are potentially useful as medicinal drugs c. searches for new way to economically exploit animals d. prospects for wild organic foods e. is a biologists and medical doctor who works for private industry 22. What is the cause of extinction and reduction in wild species that compete for resources with humans? a. hunting similar prey b. use of pesticides that inadvertently kill wild species c. human population growth d. pollution e. invasive species 23. The greatest threat to most species is ____. a. loss of habitat b. water pollution c. parasites d. sport hunting e. global drought conditions 24. The greatest threat to species habitat loss is ____. a. climate change b. pollution c. tropical deforestation d. desertification e. invasive species 25. What is a threat to 60% of the U.S. wildlife refuges? a. ecotourism and hunting b. invasive species c. human population growth d. habitat fragmentation e. mining, oil drilling, and use of off–road vehicles 26. Kudzu was deliberately introduced to the U.S. to help ____. a. stabilize honey bee populations b. eliminate other invasive species c. control soil erosion d. manage colony collapse disorders in various species e. produce sustainable food sources 27. HIPPCO is ____. a. an acronym that summarizes the Endangered Species Act goals b. an acronym to summarize the direct causes of extinction resulting from human activities c. the name of an ecotourism company in Africa that specializes in hippopotamus sightings d. an acronym to summarize the health care right to privacy act e. a trading company in Africa that sells hippopotamus hides 28. The ‘extinction capital’ of the United States is ____. a. Florida, with 63% of its species at risk b. Key West, with 72% of its species at risk c. California, with 63% of its species at risk d. Hawaii, with 63% of its species at risk e. Puerto Rico, with 63% of its species at risk 29. The major factor in the population explosion of the zebra mussel in the Great Lakes region is ____. a. the zebra mussel’s specialist ecological niche b. because it has a hard shell that protects it from predation c. its ability to latch onto to boats and travel to new locations d. the illegal importation for restaurant food e. its rapid reproductive rate and its lack of natural enemies that might control its population 30. The decline in approximately 70% of the world’s bird species is particularly alarming to scientists because ____. a. this is the first time any bird species have been threatened with declining numbers b. the cause is a non-human activity that scientists cannot determine. c. only land birds are affected, while water birds seem to be maintaining normal population numbers d. birds are excellent environmental indicators e. bird watching now generates a significant portion of tourist dollars in some countries 31. Establishing international treaties that ban the transfer of potentially harmful species from one country to another is a good way to control ____. a. overexploitation b. poaching c. population growth d. habitat fragmentation e. invasive species 32. The international illegal trade in wildlife brings in an average of ____. a. $600,000 per year b. $1.8 million per hour c. $1.1 million per year d. $500,000 per hour e. $100 million per year 33. According to a 2013 study by the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD), almost ____ of the ESA–protected species are recovering at the rate projected in their recovery plans. a. none b. 90% c. 35% d. 20% e. 10% 34. Why has the implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity been slow? a. lack of acceptance by the United Nations b. war and conflict in many biodiversity hotspots c. inability of poor countries to enforce the conventions d. lack of ratification by key counties including the United States e. difficulties in controlling poaching 35. The Endangered Species Act was designed to ____. a. catalogue and protect threatened species from extinction in the United States b. identify and protect endangered species only in the United States c. identify and protect endangered species in the United States and abroad d. develop recovery plans for listed species more quickly e. emphasize the protection of biological diversity and ecosystem functioning 36. Egg pulling refers to ____. a. techniques used to extend the breeding span of captured birds b. collecting eggs from the wild and hatching them in zoos or research centers c. using fertility drugs to increase productivity d. production of hybrids in captive breeding programs e. collecting unfertilized eggs from ovaries of wild animals 37. Captive breeding programs in zoos ____. a. eliminate the need to preserve critical habitats b. can be used for most species except mammals c. increase the genetic variability of species d. require the captive population to number between 100 and 500 e. are largely unsuccessful 38. Recent genetic research indicates that ____ or more individuals are needed for an endangered species to maintain its capacity for biological evolution. a. 10 b. 100 c. 1,000 d. 10,000 e. 100,000 39. A small orchid plant that is found only on a tiny island in the Atlantic Ocean, just off the coast of Florida, has been listed as an endangered species. Which agency was responsible for listing this plant as endangered? a. National Marine Fisheries Service b. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service c. U.S. Botanical Survey d. International Commission on Rare Plants e. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species 40. What does the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) specifically address? a. poaching of all protected wild species b. determining which species become listed as threatened c. banning the hunting, capturing, and selling of threatened or endangered species d. establishing trade laws for all economically important wild species e. legally requiring governments to reduce the global rate of biodiversity loss 41. What agency or group is responsible for studying the status of threatened dolphins and whether it should be listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act? a. Environmental Protection Agency b. CITES c. National Marine Fisheries Service d. Convention on Biological Diversity e. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 42. What HIPPCO activity is the main threat to the beaches where endangered sea turtles breed?? a. invasive species b. pollution c. Fragmentation d. climate change e. use of pesticides 43. What is to the best approach to preserving genetic information for endangered plant species? a. national laws b. protected areas c. wildlife refuges d. arboretums e. seed banks 44. When it comes to wood products, what is the most important step you can take to help protect endangered species? a. Do not buy furs or ivory b. Do not buy wood products from tropical or old-growth forests c. Do not buy pet animals from the tropics d. Support your local forester e. Avoid having campfires Chapter 9 – Sustaining Biodiversity – Saving Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services 45. Forest fires cause the germination of seeds of certain tree species. a. True b. False 46. A tree plantation, also called a tree farm or commercial forest, is a managed forest containing only one or two species of trees that are all of the same age. a. True b. False 47. Removing dams and allowing rivers to flow freely can help restore biodiversity. a. True b. False 48. Traditional medicines are derived mostly from plant species that are native to forests. a. True b. False 49. Water evaporating from trees and vegetation in tropical rain forests has little effect on the amount of rainfall there. a. True b. False 50. Commercial forests have the same biodiversity as old-growth forests. a. True b. False 51. Conservation concessions involve governments or private conservation organizations paying nations for agreeing to preserve their natural resources. a. True b. False 52. One way to help sustain terrestrial biodiversity would be to map the world’s terrestrial ecosystems and create an inventory of the species contained in each of them, along with the ecosystem services they provide. a. True b. False 53. When managed properly, ecotourism can be a useful form of reconciliation ecology, but without proper controls, it can lead to degradation of popular sites if visitors overrun them. a. True b. False 54. Overfishing is an example of the tragedy of the commons. a. True b. False 55. Ocean acidification is the result of ____. a. acid rain? b. the ocean absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere c. eutrophication d. ecosystem changes induced by overfishing e. warming ocean water 56. Which type of forest is considered a reservoir of biodiversity? a. old-growth b. second-growth c. commercial d. tree plantation e. selective 57. Removing all the trees from an area is called a ____. a. selective-cut b. clear-cut c. second-cut d. strip-cut e. purge-cut 58. A(n) ____ is an extremely hot fire that leaps from treetop to treetop, burning whole trees. a. surface fire b. crown fire c. ecotone fire d. strip fire e. clear fire 59. A tree harvesting method involving cutting intermediate-aged or mature trees singly or in small groups is called ____. a. clear-cutting b. strip cutting c. selective cutting d. patch cutting e. landscape cutting 60. Sustainable management and harvesting of forests are certified by the ____. a. U.S. Forest Service b. California Conservation Core c. Forest Stewardship Council d. Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species e. Endangered Species Act 61. Tropical forests in the Amazon and other South American countries are cleared or burned primarily ____. a. due to urban sprawl b. to enable the construction of major highways c. for lumber needed in growing cities d. for cattle grazing and large soybean plantations e. to enable the expansion of mining 62. What could governments do regarding deforestation to be consistent with the full-cost pricing principle of sustainability? a. Increase taxes on fuel to drive up the price of timber b. Replace subsidies/tax breaks that encourage deforestation with forest-sustaining economic rewards c. Outlaw logging d. Build logging roads so companies can access forest land more easily e. Ban the use of cardboard and other paper products 63. Gray wolves disappeared from Yellowstone National Park because ____. a. their habitat has severely degraded b. of a series of devastating crown fires c. elk were overhunted by humans d. they were killed by humans e. a virus wiped out the population 64. Natural ecological restoration of riparian areas can happen if ____. a. enough chemical fertilizer is applied b. there is aggressive planting of native trees and shrubs c. the native fish in the adjacent stream or river are restocked d. overgrazed land is protected through rotational grazing e. cloud seeding is performed 65. According to the National Park Service, ____ degrades scenic views in many U.S. national parks more than 90% of the time. a. soil erosion b. logging c. forest fires d. air pollution e. acid rain 66. The wolf reintroduction was based partly on its importance as a(n) ____. a. indicator species b. generalist species c. fur-bearing species d. keystone species e. predator on grizzly bear cubs 67. According to your textbook, one of the biggest problems for U.S. national and state parks today is ____. a. popularity b. nearby human activities c. forest clearing d. poaching e. soil erosion 68. In debt-for-nature swaps, participating countries ____. a. act as custodians of protected forest reserves in return for foreign aid or debt relief b. take out loans to finance nature preserves c. sell nature preserves to industries to pay off debts d. invest in ecologically sound companies e. repay debts with raw natural resources rather than currency 69. Which practice would make forestry less sustainable? a. Reduce road-building in forests b. Stop clear-cutting on steep slopes. c. Clear old-growth forests for tree plantations d. Include ecosystem services of forests in estimates of their economic value e. Leave most standing dead trees and larger fallen trees for wildlife habitat and nutrient cycling 70. Strips of vegetation along stream or rivers are called ____. a. rangelands b. transition forests c. second-growth boundaries d. lianas e. riparian zones 71. What action involves returning a degraded habitat or ecosystem to a condition as similar as possible to its natural state in cases where this is feasible? a. rehabilitation b. reintroduction c. replacement d. artificial construction e. Restoration 72. ____ involves turning a degraded ecosystem into a functional or useful ecosystem without trying to restore it to its original condition. a. Replacement b. Restoration c. Reintroduction d. Rehabilitation e. Artificial construction 73. ____ involves replacing a degraded ecosystem with another type of ecosystem. a. Rehabilitation b. Replacement c. Artificial construction d. Restoration e. Reintroduction 74. A certain lake in the arid west contains an endangered species of fish. The legal status of this fish required water diversions out of the river feeding the lake to be decreased substantially. About 10 years following this decree, the declining cottonwood forest and canopy along the riverbanks was noted to be recovering. This situation illustrates the potential effectiveness of ____. a. the species approach to sustaining biodiversity b. the ecosystem approach to sustaining biodiversity c. cottonwood trees as part of all stream recovery programs d. water as a solution to species decline e. fish as indicator species 75. Focusing on establishing and maintaining new habitats to conserve species diversity in places where people live, work, or play to increase our beneficial environmental impact – by learning how to share some of the spaces we dominate with other species – is called____. a. biocultural replacement b. urban sprawl c. reintroduction d. reconciliation ecology e. the ecosystem approach 76. One problem that threatens aquatic biodiversity is the deliberate or accidental introduction of ____ into coastal waters, wetlands, and lakes throughout the world. a. new sources of food for aquatic organisms b. hundreds of harmful invasive species c. excess oxygen d. skewed sex ratios e. groundwater 77. Since we began burning fossil fuels in large quantities during the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, there has been a ____ in the average acidity of surface ocean water. a. 170% rise b. 30% drop c. 3% rise d. 30% rise e. 300% rise 78. What activity involves dragging huge nets weighted down with chains and steel plates over the ocean floor to harvest a few species of bottom fish and shellfish? a. deep sea aquaculture b. long-line fishing c. drift-net fishing d. purse-seine fishing e. trawler fishing 79. One reason protecting marine biodiversity is difficult is that ____. a. much of the damage to the oceans and other bodies of water is not visible to most people b. most species in marine ecosystems are keystone species c. marine ecosystems are much more affected by urban sprawl d. marine ecosystems cannot be restored e. most of the world’s ocean area lies within the legal jurisdiction of one country or another 80. A forested slope is set to be logged. Which method will minimize erosion and protect the stream at the base of the slope from being polluted by excess sediment? a. strip cutting b. clear-cutting c. surface cutting d. second-growth cutting e. crown cutting ****************************************************************************** END OF TAKEHOME QUESTIONS ****************************************************************************** [Pls Note: The online version of this test will be available on the date indicated on the syllabus.]
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