Hispanics/Latinos can be from many different countries. The fastest rising population in the United States and also the biggest ethnic group (Andrews, 2013). Many have religious background that is Roman Catholic. Many believe in the supernatural, and do not consider they have control over what happens to them, Gods will determines illness and recovery (Andrews, 2013). Many families believe in traditional roles for males as the protector and provider and females as the homemaker and child care provider. Self-treatment or local healers are often tried as a first line of action (Andrews, 2013).
Follow-up on treatments is important to make sure there was understanding by the patient due to the individuals feeling they should not question providers out of respect (Jacobs, Ownby, Acevedo & Waldrop-Valverde, 2017).
Pacific Islanders are from many different islands. Those islands in the Pacific Ocean are categorized into three main types. For this paper I will focus mostly on the Polynesian population since that is where most of the migration to the US has come from (Andrews, 2013).
Some of the cultural differences have to do with religious believes. Many pacific islanders believe in gods, and the supernatural and believe that those things play a role in illnesses and adjust treatment accordingly. There are many treatment methods that are common among this culture including, massage, herbal treatment, and balance among relationships (Andrews, 2013).
Childbirth is a time in life when people are happy to be going to the hospital for care. When Pacific Islanders give birth they like for family to be present during the birth (Davis et al., 2017). Having children can be a stressful event and people like to have things the way they want during stressful times, they also want people they trust and can seek advice from around them. Pacific Islanders trust family and rely on them and they OB for information to make informed decisions during childbirth (Davis et al., 2017). Children of Pacific Islanders are often raised with grandparents around and taught to respect them (Mokuau et al., 2015). Grandparents play a vital role in teaching children core values specific to the pacific island culture.
When Hispanic/Latinos give birth they have a strong tie to family being involved in all aspects of childbirth (Andrews, 2013). Hispanic cultures have conditions that are considered hot or cold and they have strong beliefs about foods they can eat and things that must be avoided. Pregnancy is considered a hot condition they believe strongly that they should avoid hot foods, and conditions that are considered hot (Andrews, 2013). There are risks when it comes to childbirth and Hispanic patients are ar higher risk for gestational Diabetes and risk of hemorrhage after birth (Kilpatrick, 2017). Children are considered a gift from God in the Hispanic culture, and family is highly involved in their care from childbirth on (Andrews, 2013).
Pacific Islanders may be hesitant to ask questions, it is very important to make sure patients understand all instructions given for treatment. Family is a very important aspect to all pacific islanders. They have a strong connection to family and the homeland (Andrews, 2013). Pacific Islander adults seem to only seek care when there is a problem, which leads to them not getting the preventative care that is recommended in the US (Narcisse et al., 2018). Pacific Islanders care for the elderly out of obligation. The younger generations take care of the older generation out of love and respect for their elders (Andrews, 2013).
Hispanic adults do not always seek care for preventative services and generally speaking only seek care when there is a problem. Learning the cues of Latinos can help in communication with them. Their culture has taught them not to question authority and therefore they may see healthcare providers as an authority figure and may not ask questions to get the clarification they need about treatments (Eubanks, 2010). Signs of respect for authority include not making eye contact, so the patient may not look at the healthcare in the eye. They have strong beliefs in folk healers and will often seek care from them before going to a traditional healthcare provider (Andrews, 2013).
Pacific Islanders believe there is afterlife and that they will become a higher level of being. Family likes to be involved in all aspects of the dying process. Allow time for grieving and allow for assistance with care after death (Andrews, 2013).
Hispanic males are taught to not express suffering, while it is considered appropriate for other family members to express suffering or grief (Jacobs, Ownby, Acevedo & Waldrop-Valverde, 2017). Family would like for the dying person to enjoy the time they have left so telling the dying individual about a bad prognosis is frowned upon in the Hispanic culture (Jacobs, Ownby, Acevedo & Waldrop-Valverde, 2017).