My topic is lung cancer. Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide, with an estimated 1.6 million deaths each year. Approximately 85% of patients have a group of histological subtypes collectively known as Non-small cell lung cancer. The most common cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoking, accounting for more than 80% of cases in the United States and other countries where smoking is common. Cancer is when cells in the body change and grow out of control. Normal cells grow when your body needs them, and die when your body does not need them any longer.
Cancer is composed of abnormal cells that grow into tumors. In most cancers, the abnormal cells grow to form a lump or mass called a tumor. If cancer cells are in the body long enough, they can grow/invade into nearby areas. They can even spread to other parts of the body (metastasis).InformationIn 1-2 well-written PAGES, explain what you have learned about your topic.
Think of this as the background you need to provide to understand the research section of your paper. Be sure to cite sources with parenthetical citations. Please include one labeled figure, table, graph, or diagram (doesn’t count towards length). Do not forget to cite it if it is not your own.Cancer cells form tumors. Cancer cells also work together. They co-opt blood vessels and extracellular tissue. Research has evolved over time as now we have many treatments so people with the disease can live longer, but there is not yet a treatment. There is not really a societal need to better understand this topic, because by now everyone knows what lung cancer is and the dangers of smoking, it’s just that more of the younger aged people should be more educated so they don’t start because it is very hard to stop.Eradicating the use of all tobacco-related products is a key goal of the global fight against cancer and requires a comprehensive approach. Primary prevention efforts include targeting nicotine addiction by providing effective delivery of nicotine without the co-administration of carcinogenic chemicals that are present in cigarettes, such as via e-cigarettes. Other strategies include the use of varenicline, a partial agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, counseling and other socio-economic methods including taxation, advertisement and legislative measures, such as lowering the amount of nicotine in cigarettes to non-addictive levels, a policy recently announced by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Cancer cells cause mutations in our body, and mutations change the way our cells behave. Then the cells start growing abnormally, which then affect our tissues. Research ApplicationsIn this section you will discuss interesting and current research done in this field. In addition to explaining what research is being done, try to include details about how the research is being done. Also, address why the research is relevant. Cite the sources with parenthetical citations. This section should be 2-3 well-written PAGES in lengthAlthough we are yet to find a cure for lung cancer, there are many treatments to help treat the disease and currently finding more and more treatments to cancer. One such treatment is chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drugs can kill rapidly dividing cells by various mechanisms. Chemotherapy can be used to either slow the progression of one’s cancer and/or cure cancer. The success rate of chemotherapy ranges with the drug and type of tumor. Cancer treatment normally consists of some combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. It is increasingly common to use chemotherapy drugs in combination with one another for specific cancers. Chemotherapy can be delivered through a catheter or device known as a port that is permanently inserted into a blood vessel or body cavity. in tablet form, by injection, or by infusion. Unfortunately, chemotherapy drugs can also kill other rapidly dividing cells in the body such as bone marrow cells, which means they have a number of side effects and sometimes leads to death. Chemotherapy drugs have many side effects arising from their impact upon fast-growing cells other than cancer cells. So, many bone marrow cells that produce all the types of blood cells are destroyed, resulting in lower-than-usual blood counts and lowered immunity. Chemotherapy drugs sometimes give disappointing results because tumors may become resistant to them, or a drug may be too toxic to allow delivery of a sufficient dose to kill the tumor. Chemotherapy has been around since the mid-1940s. Modern scientists are still creating and finding more and more new cancer treatments. An example is a chip developed at the California NanoSystems Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles. The nanochip has a velcro-like grip and can selectively screen out high-purity early traces of cancer. It is a blood testing device featuring a silicon nanowire substrate that selectively screens out high-purity early traces of cancer. Using about 2 milliliters of blood as opposed to invasive surgical biopsies or complex imaging methods, the chip has implications in a number of cancers. The device is one of a number of emerging approaches to noninvasive cancer detection and monitoring based on the analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood. These cellular fragments from a growing tumor carry copies of its mutated genetic material through the bloodstream to new parts of the body, where they can corrupt healthy cells. By catching and analyzing CTCs, researchers are learning to create detailed, patient-specific molecular profiles of a tumor. Several new large-scale studies of these so-called liquid biopsies have recently strengthened many doctors’ confidence in using them in patient care. CTCs have potential in early cancer detection, but a nearer-term payoff is likely as a target for molecular characterization and monitoring of cancer cells in response to treatment. Once captured, CTCs must be extracted from the chip without harming them to ensure accurate analysis. The original–and still standard–method for removing CTCs from the NanoVelcro substrate is laser capture microdissection. Although effective, the process is time-consuming and requires specialized equipment.The technology could provide a cost-effective and fast alternative to laser capture microdissection in the care of patients for whom time is of the essence. By combining the NanoVelcro capture approach with mutational analysis, he said, the technology has successfully monitored the disease’s evolution at the molecular level in real patients.