Music App 4 Essay

In music, the early twentieth century was a time of

revolt and change

The most famous riot in music history occurred in Paris in 1913 at the first performance of

Igor Stravinsky Rite of Spring

Composers worked in the early years of the twentieth century

except Igor Stravinsky

Composers in the twentieth century drew inspiration from

folk and pop music of all cultures

Twentieth-century composers incorporated elements of folk and popular music within their

personal styles because

they were attracted to unconventional rhythms, sounds, and melodic patterns.

A great twentieth-century composer who was also a leading scholar of the folk music of his

native land was

Bela Bartok

alternative to the traditional organization of pitch used by twentieth-century composers?


The combination of two traditional chords sounding together is known as

a polychord

A fourth chord is

a chord in which the tones are a fourth apart

A chord made of tones only a half step or a whole step apart is known as

a tone cluster

to create fresh sounds, twentieth-century composers used

non western scales, their scales, ancient church modes

The technique of using two or more tonal centers at the same time is called

expanded tonality

The absence of key or tonality in a musical composition is known as


The first significant atonal pieces were composed around 1908 by

Claude debussy

The use of two or more contrasting and independent rhythms at the same time is known as

poly rhythm

Radio broadcasts of live and recorded music began to reach large audiences during the


One of the most important teachers of musical composition in the twentieth century was

Nadia Boulinger

Impressionist painting and symbolist poetry as artistic movements originated in


The most important impressionist composer was

Claude debussy

The term impressionist derived from a critic’s derogatory reaction to Impression: Sunrise, a

painting by

Claude monet

Debussy’s music tends to

sound free and almost improvisational

Impressionism in music is characterized by

stress of tone color, atmosphere and fluidity

A scale made up of six different notes each a whole step away from the next is called a

________ scale.


The neoclassical movement in music roughly encompassed the years


Neoclassical composers favored


Neoclassical compositions are characterized by

not misty atmosphere

Neoclassical composers modeled many of their works after the compositions of

JS Bach

Neoclassicism was a reaction against

Romanticism and impressionism

Igor Stravinsky studied composition with


Stravinsky’s life took a sudden turn in 1909, when he met the director of the Russian Ballet,

Sergei Diaghilev

The immense success of Stravinsky’s 1910 ballet ________ established him as a leading young


the firebird

The famous riot in 1913 was caused by the first performance of Stravinsky’s ballet

the rite of spring

Stravinsky’s enormous influence on twentieth-century music is due to his innovations in

rhythm, harmony, tone color

Which of the following ballets is not from Stravinsky’s Russian period?


In the 1950s Stravinsky dramatically changed his style, drawing inspiration from

the 12 tone system

The expressionist movement in music and art flourished in the years


Expressionism is an art concerned with

social protest

Expressionist composers

avoided tonality and traditional chord progressions

Schoenberg’s teacher was


Schoenberg acquired his profound knowledge of music by

going to concerts, playing chamber groups, studying scores

Alban Berg and Anton Webern were Arnold Schoenberg’s


When Schoenberg arrived in the United States after the Nazis seized power in Germany, he

obtained a teaching position at


Schoenberg’s third period, in which he developed the twelve-tone system, began around


An eerily expressive kind of declamation midway between song and speech, introduced during

the expressionist period, is


The ordering of the twelve chromatic tones in a twelve-tone composition is called a

series, tone, row, set

Which of the following terms is not used to describe the chromatic tones in twelve-tone composition?special ordering of the twelve


Anton Webern

was a composer

Webern’s melodic lines are

atomized into 2 or 3 note fragments

Webern’s Five Pieces for Orchestra are scored for

a chamber orchestra of 18 soloist

From 1907 to 1934 Béla Bartók taught __________ at his alma mater, and gave recitals

throughout Europe.


The melodies Béla Bartók used in most of his works are

original themes with folk flavor

Who was the leading American composer and conductor of band music?

Leonard Bernstein

Charles Ives’s father was a(n)

insurance salesman

After graduating from Yale, Charles Ives

went into the insurance business

During most of his lifetime, Charles Ives’s musical compositions

accumulated in his barn

George Gershwin grew up in

Antavka Russia

Gershwin left high school at the age of fifteen to

become a pianist demonstrating new songs in a publishers salesroom

George Gershwin usually collaborated with the lyricist

Ira Gershwin

Porgy and Bess is a(n)


William Grant Still

Troubled Island / in NY

Each movement of William Grant Still’s Afro-American Symphony is prefaced by lines from a

poem by


Aaron Copland was born in


In 1921 Copland went to France, where he was the first American to study composition with

Nadia Boulinger

In 1925, after Copland returned from France, American music meant


In 1925, and for a few years afterward, Copland’s music showed the influence of


Appalachian Spring originated as a

ballet score for the great modern dance and choreographer Martha Graham

Alberto Ginastera, one of the most prominent Latin-American composers of the 20th century,

was born in


One of Ginastera’s early works, Estancia Suite, is


In 1945 Ginastera moved to the United States where he had the opportunity to study with the

well known American composer

Aaron Copeland

Since World War II, musical styles have

taken many new directions

All of the following are major developments in music since 1950 except the

continued composition of symphonies in the classical style

Composers began to shift from tonality to the twelve-tone system because

discovered it was compostional

The twelve-tone composer whose style was most imitated in the 1950s and 1960s was

anton webern

Serialism is a compositional technique in which

stuff serves a unifying idea

Twelve-tone compositional techniques used to organize rhythm, dynamics, tone color, and

other dimensions of music to produce totally controlled and organized music are called


In chance, or aleatory music, the composer

choose pitches, tone color, rhythm, and random methods

Around 1940, John Cage invented the prepared piano, a(n)

grand piano whose sound is altered by objects

Edgard Varèse’s Poème électronique

was also designed for 1958 Brussels world fair, earliest masterpiece composed in collab with Le Corbusier

Ragtime flourished in the United States


The most famous blues singer of the 1920s, known as the “empress of the blues”, was

Bessie Smith

New Orleans style Dixieland flourished in the United States


The major center of jazz from about 1900 to 1917 was


Duke Ellington was an important figure in


Duke Ellington’s compositions are outstanding because they

have rich tone colors, harmony, distinctive sounds of individual musicians

Bebop differed from earlier jazz forms in that it

used written arrangements with little improviation

A typical bebop group might include

saxophone, trumpet, piano, bass, precussion

One of the greatest of all jazz improvisers and a towering figure among bebop musicians was the


Charlie Parker

A bebop performance generally began and ended with

statement of main theme

Cool jazz

related to bop but more relaxed

A golden era of American musical theater was created from about


Leonard Bernstein was a well-known

ballet composer/musicals

In addition to his famous musicals, Leonard Bernstein also wrote successful

ballet, choral, symphonies

The musical loosely based on Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is

west side story

Rock has been defined as

vocal music with hard driving beat, electric guitar, amplified sound

Early rock grew mainly out of __________, a dance music of African Americans that

fused blues, jazz, and gospel styles.

rhythm and blues

A folklike, guitar-based style associated with rural white Americans is known as

country and western

The Beatles’s influence on American rock music may be seen through later performers’

use of

classical non western instruments, unconventional scales, and chord progressions

Nonwestern music is most often transmitted


Singers in the Middle East and North Africa cultivate a vocal timbre that

has a nasal, intense, and strained tone

The most important way of making music in most nonwestern cultures is by

the voice

Musical instruments whose sound generator is a column of air are classified as


Musical instruments whose own material is the sound generator are classified as


Nonwestern musical scales often contain ________ tones.

5,6,7 tones

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