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Farah Saleem 2

Zubair Hassan Awaisi 3

Shagufta Kanwal 4

Anam Akram


Cranial base growth effects the growth and rotation of entire viscreocranium. The cranial base

through its articulation with maxilla and mandible is thought to have an impact on anteroposterior

jaw positions.Although Scientific literature indicates a relation between deflection of cranial base

and skeletal discrepancies, various studies done on effect of cranial base growth on facial complex

seems to show conflicting results depicting both positive and negative correlation between the the

two entities.

The aim and purpose of this study, therefore, is to evaluate and assess the relationship and

correlation (if there is any ) between various skeletal malocclusion and angle of cranial base

.Cranial base angles (N-S-Ar)(N-S-Ba) were traced measured on lateral cephalograms of 100

patients with different horizontal skeletal dysplasias.

In this study no differences were recorded between cranial base deflection angles (NSAr and NSBa

) and three malocclusions groups I.

e. Class I ,II and III. This study did not find

has long been of interest to orthodontists as it

has crucial integrative and functional roles in

the skull, a lot of which are reflective of its

phylognetic history as being the ancient

component of vertebrate skull 6,8



BDS, Post Graduate Resident , Department

Of Orthodontics NID,Mubtan.

MCPS, Assistant Professor brain components and areas

of nasal and oral cavities 1

.The skull not only

protects and supports brain but also articulates

the cranium with both the jaws and to vertebral

column. Skull base also plays a role in

adaptations of neurocranium and

viscreocranium. 2,3

. It has a crucial role in

swallowing 21

. It also plays a major role in

influence on positions of both maxilla and

mandible and pattern of malocclusion is

related positivley with cranial base structures

as proposed by Bjork 2

and others. Although

cranial base develops majorly from

chondrocranium , it shows both neural growth ,

from sella upto foramen caecum , and somatic

pattern of growth type. . From 7-8 years growth


the anterior segment is majorly due to

enlargement of frontal sinus and remodeling at

nasion point. Whereas, posteriorly growth is

due to interstitial growth at spheno-occipital

synchondrosis.Cranial base center ,sella

turcica , forms anterior limb ( from sella to

nasion ) and posterior limb ( from sella to

basion) of cranial base ;forming an angle of

130 o

– 135 o

at sella..Growth in anterior part of

cranial base influences maxilla while

mandible due to its attachment is effected by

posterior cranial base growth. Given that it

would be wise to assume that the skeletal

pattern of a individual might be influenced by

cranial base morphology, and studies support

this ,14,15,16,17,8

. In his studies conducted on the

same topic Bjork 2

discussed the influence of

alterations in cranial base upon occlusion.

While Moss 5

showed a smaller cranial base

angle in subjects of class III malocclusion and

that of Hopkins et al 10

and other studies

showed greater angle in Class II subjects 8


there are studies reporting little or no such


Evidence stating regional differences in

In the

view of above facts a study was conducted on

Group keletal Class I patients having


Group patients having


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