leading for safety v3 Essay



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The marine industry is one of the riskiest industry of the world. Some tiny mistake can occur to the deprivation of millions worth properties and human lives. So the safety is a major thing that has to keep in healthy onboard. So Leadership & Management skill is required to maintain the safety positively.

Leadership & Management are key factors that directly affect the survival of any organization. The major target of any organization is handling its resources efficiently and effectively.

For that, Leadership & Management skills use to control human and non-human resources. Simply management is an art of getting things done and leadership is the ability to influence the attitude and behaviors of others to achieve the goal. Actually, leadership is one of the functions of management. When we talk about marine industry, The STCW Convention and Code (Manila amendments 2010) states the requirements to exhibit the competency in non-technical skills within the areas of resource management, leadership and skills in managerial roles that deck and engineering officers are expected to have.

In this report, we simply discuss how to analyze the techniques of management roles and leadership skills which are applied in marine industry under various topics.

Management Styles

A management style can be described as a way of leadership that is used by managers. This is way in which a manager makes decisions relating to their subordinates. Management style dependent on your corporate culture.

If we consider the difference in between the two terms, leadership and management, leadership can be defined as a quality of influencing people

Leadership, differs from management as it is one of the elements of management. Management is a discipline that makes it easy to manage things in the best feasible manner. It is the art of collaborating with others to get the work done.2

Key management styles are given below;

Authoritarian (Tell)

Paternalistic (Sell)

Democratic (Consult)

Laissez faire (Join/Delegate)

The key features of two management styles are as follows.


– Autocratic leaders hold onto as much power and decision-making as possible

– Focus of power is with the manager

– Communication is top-down & one-way

– Formal systems of command & control

– Minimal consultation

– Use of rewards & penalties

– Very little delegation

– McGregor Theory X approach

– Most likely to be used when subordinates are unskilled, not trusted and their ideas are not valued Leader decides what is best for employees


– Links with Mayo – addressing employee needs

– Akin to a parent/child relationship – where the leader is seen as a “father-figure”

– Still little delegation

– A softer form of authoritarian leadership, which often results in better employee motivation and lower staff turnover

Authority and AssertivenessAuthority:

Authority emerges from the inner confidence. The attitude of thinking that you “can do it” and you deserve success, leads you towards being authoritative. This attitude is exposed to the outsiders as someone asserts his rights, ask for his wants and needs and as someone develops a willingness to give to others and himself.

Most of the people tend to underestimate their successes and remember their previous failures when things go wrong. This tendency must be counteracted by building an authority structure within ourselves.

Assertiveness:Being assertive makes a person build self-esteem within himself and to believe in their skills and opinions. Honesty and being straightforward are good qualities of an assertive person. They do not refuse to accept the responsibility for an unexpected situation. Assertiveness makes you make decisions based on your own opinion.

Assertiveness makes you raise your voice for your rights and your beliefs. However, being assertive is not just achieving your wants at the expense of others. You must respect both others’ beliefs and your rights while standing for what you believe. Assertiveness makes you not to depend on others’ approval to make decisions or to act3

Relationship between Authority and AssertivenessCommanding attention using formal authority should be avoided. An assertive person is capable of voicing his concerns rather than commanding attention. Even though this is a good attitude, being too much or too little assertive is considered as unacceptable. We use difference styles of communication, depending on the situation and the people that we are communicating with. The four communication styles are, passive, aggressive, passive-aggressive, and assertive. In assertive communication balance between passive and aggressive is maintained.4

Challenge and Response for safetyNormally when you are onboard, It’s completely challenge with surviving without any harm. It is essential to having good managing and leadership skill to face expectable accident or weather condition. You must act quickly with common sense as your training. Above discussed qualities much needed for the safety of whole ship.

Downtime accident (Source:

Situational Awareness

Situational awareness is being aware of the environment and the events around you with regard to time or space, grasping their meaning, and the prediction of their future status.5

For example if too many boats run aground, collide or come into closer quarters, it is simply because the masters are lack of situational awareness. In other words, they are unaware of their environment.

So in order to avoid such situations master must have a good perception of his surroundings at all times including the incidents and predicting how those incidents affect his boat. According to the example followings are what need be considered to have good situational awareness.

Other boats in the area

Communications between vessel traffic services and other boats


Sea state

Depth of water

Tide and current6

Shared mental models“Shared mental model” is a familiar term in literature concerning team work. The concept of a “shared mental model” is commonly used to explain how teams should function. It describes that team performance improves if team members have a shared understanding of the teamwork and the goal that must be achieved.7

Shared Mental Model


Today a maritime decision-maker must take actions depending on a growingly complicated set of situational awareness factors including the large functioning space, unavoidable weather conditions, common sea lanes, security of vessels, intermodal problems such as port status and rail/truck transport. The visual complexity and mental complexity of these factors are devastating

Situational awareness is a state of mind rather than technology. It provides more and more data in response. 8

Situational Awareness during Shipboard OperationsInitially, Situation Awareness was used as an aviation term. But nowadays this term is widely used in shipping industry which rapidly changes time to time (dynamic) , complicated and includes various areas of human factors such as bridge team operations.

Most of the accidents that relate to navigation are either groundings or collisions. Some of the reasons which lead one towards these accidents are misunderstanding of collision regulations, not following the approved passage plan and system/technical failures.

In order to understand the significance of situational awareness in preventing accidents, a navigational bridge team member must have a review of the application of situational awareness in practice and how it if linked with passage planning, system/ equipment failures and collision regulations.

situational awareness associates with passage planning, system failures and collision regulations. It is the most important and critical element of proper ship management. As there is no substance, staying alert has become an overused commonplace. There is a defined process within the concept of situational awareness which is applicable for every facet on the shipboard operation. Mariners can easily ensure that they are gathering correct data, seeking critical information and are “staying ahead of the vessel with “situational awareness loops”. It helps them manage current and future shipboard operations very effectively.9

Judgment and Decision makingStudying the consequences of human judgment on stressful situations is important for emergency managers In emergencies that are human induced and natural emergencies, the decisions that are made within first few minutes/hours/days are considered so critical for the success in damage mitigation, control, prevention of structure and human loss, control of financial costs and overall conclusion of the disaster. During a situation of emergency, the critical judgments are often made with stress. And emergency decision makers are required to go through and process large amounts of information which are often error prone under certain constraints.10

Emergency Situations Ship burn (source:

An emergency condition must be managed with patience and certainty. Because the decisions made with haste can turn the bad situation into worse. Continuous training and practical drills can help in achieving the ability of handling emergencies efficiently. Lack of training can lead people towards lack of knowledge of actions to be taken in emergencies and often get panic attacks.

Above all, the seafarer must be aware of the different kinds of emergencies that can occur on board ships, in advance they arise. This concern helps in understanding the circumstances better, making decisions correctly and take most appropriate actions to help lives, property and the environment.

A department of emergency does some unique operations to stay stable in chaos. The responsibility of Emergency Department leaders and it’s managers is to make sure that their teams are provided with the best working environments where they can provide the best care for their patients. These environmental conditions depend on system, place and most importantly people as the most important assert for an emergency department is people. 11

Basic Counselling ProcedureCounselling is a process that supports employees of an organization to solve their problems in various ways. It is a team work and a collaboration in which a person who is dealing with personal problems is seeking for support or advice from a well-trained helper, sharing his dilemma.

Categories of Work Based Counselling

Disciplinary Counselling

Personal Counselling

Stress Management

Drugs and Alcohol Addiction

The role of a counsellor includes the job of helping his client to make him feel comfortable and safe to communicate with him revealing his/her thoughts without any hesitation. The counsellor must make the client feel respected. Client must be given the feeling that the counsellor understands him.

Basic Counselling Procedure




Recap & plan of action

In the practice of counselling, if the counsellor identifies that the difficulty the client undergoes is not to his knowledge base he may advice the client to attend in to someone with specialization in the relevant field, rather than generic knowledge.14

Safety must be an ATTITUDE

In a cutshort, Safety management aims at accident prevention in workplace.Reactive and Proactive approaches to safety management. Reactive means after accident occurred, problem oriented type

Proactive means before occurring an accident, organization oriented. In a real sense of word positive leadership and management skills dedicates to survival of ship.


Author Last name, First Initial. (Year published). Title. City: Publisher, Page(s) used.)

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Surbhi, S. (2019). Difference Between Leadership and Management (with Examples and Comparison Chart) – Key Differences. [online] Key Differences. Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2019].

Manning, M. (2015). Authority, Accessibility, and Assertiveness. [online] The Consulting Team. Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2019].

Nairaland.com. (2016). It’s Time To Start Being Assertive – Career – Nigeria. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2019].

En.wikipedia.org. (2019). Situation awareness. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2019].

Maritime Safety Queensland. (2017). Situational awareness. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2019].

Jonker, C., van Riemsdijk, B. and Vermeulen, B. (2010). Shared Mental Models – A Conceptual Analysis. In: [email protected] Lyon: [email protected]

GOMEZ, G. (2016). The Situational Awareness Challenge. [online] The Maritime Executive. Available at: [Accessed 24 Feb. 2019].

Safahani, M. and Tuttle, S. (2000). Situation Awareness and its Practical Application in Maritime Domain.

Kathleen, M. & Charles, V.(2003) Judgment and Decision making Under Stress

Seow, E. (2013). Leading and managing an emergency department—A personal view. Journal of Acute Medicine, 3(3), pp.61-66.

Studepedia.org. (1992). Actions in Emergencies. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2019].


Downtime accident (Source:

Ship burn (source:

Shared Mental Model (Source:

BIBLIOGRAPHY Anon., n.d. s.l.: Leonard D. Shaffer, “The Leadership Journey,”.

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