Leadership and motivation
Organizations employ workers with different qualifications and capabilities to perform various duties based on their area of specialization. Promotions are one of the strategies to encourage employees to work towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of an organization. Though, in most organizations promotions are usually based on qualifications and not work experience. Thus, regardless of hard work or diligence of a worker, he may fail to be promoted just like Mr Simon. In such a situation, it would be necessary for an organization to consider other motivating factors or incentives to boost the morale of such a worker. Most the topics that have so far been covered can be used to examine such a scenario. The following section presents the discussion associated with Mr Simon’s situation as well as the methods or measures which can be used to encourage such an employee.
Analysis of Simon’s situation
Employees can be motivated to work through different ways apart from promotions. Motivation is the drive to do something or a particular activity. It can be described as the intensity and direction of one’s effort to satisfy his/her needs or the needs of others. There are diligent, experienced and hardworking employees like Simon who does whatever it takes to facilitate the betterment of a company. Since such workers might lack the necessary qualification for promotion, they can be motivated through other methods or ways including rewards and better allowances among other benefits. For Simon to realize his targets as an employee, there has to be a psychological force that will demonstrates his level of effort applied in order to carry on with difficulties and continue working diligently despite the not being promoted to a higher position in the organization (Sanzotta, D. 1977 ).
Rewards can be considered as alternative to motivate Simon. These are the benefits that he can be given for the good job done or for discharging his responsibilities. Compensation in terms of salary has always been considered as an important motivating factors but there are other forms of rewards that an employee can be offered as a motivating factor. Simon’s utterances regarding leaving the organization shows that organizations face a lot of challenges when it comes to retaining good employees. Some workers feel that the reward package offered by the organization are not satisfactory. Thus, pay and reward system can be demotivating factor. The rewards provided should match the efforts by an employee towards achieving the objectives of the organization. For Simon to stay in the organization, he should be given reasonable rewards based on his experience. (Schuler, 1998)
There is need for the organization to come with an effective rewarding system for Simon. The organization should conduct performance appraisals to determine how best Simon has achieved, recognized and reward him accordingly like those in higher management levels in the company. The procedures as well as the policies adopted by the company should be able to enhance satisfaction and motivation to boost worker’s productivity.
The adoption of Performance-based pay (PBP) as a compensation scheme establishes a link between a worker and his performance. PBP is a system of remuneration where an employee’s salary increase depends on the merit rating or appraisal (Swabe, 1989). According to Armstrong 2005, PBP is a process of offering financial reward to an employee that is linked directly to an individual, a group of people or an organization. However, Schuler (1998) maintains that PBP is not only based on financial rewards but non-financial rewards can also be considered. The idea regarding non- financial rewards does not necessarily mean that the reward does not have financial value. Thus, it means that what is provided in not only money. The ultimate effect of as non-financial reward is increase in self-esteem. Besides such a reward ought to be memorable. An example of a Non- financial rewards is recognition. The organization can give Simon non-financial rewards to re-motivate him. It can also consider giving something memorable to Simon. He can be given a gift or an experience. Such rewards encourages flexibility, recognize performance and establish greater financial control.
As stated earlier, managers understand that promotion is one of the great ways of motivating employees. Organizations do not just hand out promotions to any worker because of doing well. There are constraints which are brought about by organizations structure or the makeup of all employees as well as policies of the company. This constraints limits the timing and the number of promotions.
According to research and motivational theories, it is cheaper to motivate a workers through Career advancement than with cash. However workers always expect a promotion to come with an increase in salary. There are two main purposes that high pay in high positions serve and these includes motivation of higher level employee so that he or she can be productive and, to encourage employee at lower levels to work diligently so as to get the job done so as to attain the goals of the company and attain such a position in the future.
Therefore, salary of an experienced worker can be increased to motivate him or her. As a result, the organization can consider increasing Simon’s salary such that it matches those in higher position than him. Increasing salary would be more appealing than maintaining the level of salary that he used to earn before. Simon will continue working diligently and might be encouraged to pursue a course so as to attain other qualifications that would increase the chances of being promoted in the future.
Like any other employee, the question that Simon keeps asking himself is “What’s in it for me?” From his conversation with his colleague, it is evident that the answer to his question is “leave it or take it” which clearly tells that he is only slightly motivated to do his job. As a result, there is a need to come up with a long lasting incentive to encourage workers like Simon. Motivation tends to last for a longer time when it is reinforced intermittently rather than regularly. Intermittent rewards seem to be stronger. An employee can expect the reward rather than see it as a treat that is supposed to be. Provision of intermittent reward during the employment period would also motivate Simon.
Analysis of Simon’s situation based on Herzberg’s two factor theory
One of the motivational concepts and topics that relate with Simon’s is Herzberg’s theory. Herzberg described the view of productivity of an employee not only in relation job satisfaction but also on work motivation. He clarified that an individual’s relation and attitude towards work can determine success or failure of the organization. This argument can be applied to Simon’s situation. Thus, Simon had positive attitude regarding his job and worked hard with the expectation that his efforts would be recognized through promotion. Nevertheless, he was not promoted and since his skills and abilities are irreplaceable, the organization has to ensure that Simon maintains positive attitude toward work. This can be achieved by providing extrinsic motivators such as higher allowances and job security as suggested by these theory.
(Herzberg 2003) described nine factors that can motivate and employee which include; reducing time spent at work, sensitivity training, fringe benefit, spiraling wages, two-way communication, job sharing, human relation training, employee counselling and communication. He also did a comparison between motivation and internal self-charging battery suggesting that the positivity should come from within the employees to become motivated (Maidani, E. 1991). He argued that an employee is inspired to fulfil his growth needs; it is set up upon satisfaction innate of a sense of success, responsibility, personal growth and recognition. Herzberg says that recognition is transformed into feedback, power to communicate, obligation to self-regulation, exercise control over resource and liability and finally, growth and advancement are converted into the new capability. The nine factors that were suggested by Herzberg can be implemented to encourage not only Simon but all employee in the organization to enhance the success of the company.
Analysis of Simon’s scenario based on Vroom’s Expectation theory
This theory is aimed at work motivation and can be used to analyze the Scenario under Discussion. The theory is based on the idea that a person’s motivation depends on his or her desire for an outcome and the likelihood that his or her determination will lead to necessary performance. The theory is defined as, “the strength of a tendency to act in a particular way depends on the strength of an anticipation that the act will be preceded by a given outcome and on the desirability of that outcome to an individual” (Lee, S. 2007).
The three Vroom’s expectancy relationships in relation to Simon’s situation
Reward-personal goal relationship: the degree to which a person’s goals are satisfied by rewards given by the organization and the extent to which an individual is personally attracted to the rewards (Lee, S. 2007). Since, Simon expected a desirable outcome that he could that he failed to attain. The organization should re-motivate him through a Reward-Personal goal relationship. The organization should provide him with the necessary rewards for his personal growth. Such rewards can include
Effort-performance relationships: the possibility remarked by an individual that applying extra efforts will result to performance. From this argument, it can be concluded that through his abilities and skills, Simon was able to exhibit exceptional performance such that he was exceptional.
Performance-reward relationship: the degree to which an individual is certain that extra effort exerted performance will lead to the achievement of the desired outcome. Despite the fact that Simon did was not promoted, his salary might be increased and could receive other benefits.
The relationship between Abraham Maslow’s theory and Simon’s situation
Abraham Maslow explains or describes the concept of motivation in form of hierarchy of needs. A need is required by every individual. Individuals strive to fulfil their needs in order to get satisfaction. Motivation is necessary in all the efforts towards satisfying their needs. Abraham postulated that individuals always seek to fulfil a various needs which are in chronological according to their degree of importance (Healy, K. 2016). He argued that when one’s need is satisfied, it decreases in strength and the greater need then dominates behavior. Maslow’s organized on five general levels depicted in form of a pyramid diagram listed from the lowest to the highest level of needs he suggested that the underlying needs for all humans’ motives can be.
Physiological and safety needs are on the lowest level of the pyramid as they are satisfied externally. This level can be used to analyze Simon’s scenario and it can be concluded that Simon had already fulfilled these needs. Thus, he was physiologically satisfied he used to earn a salary and cater for the basic needs. What he needed was to move to a higher level in the hierarchy.
The other needs as proposed by Abraham are internal and are higher order need in the hierarchy. He suggested that needs are satisfied from the lowest to the highest in the hierarchy. Application of this theory in the organization practice will be helpful in motivating Simon members and other staff members depending on their needs.
Moreover, it can be said that Simon had fulfilled his safety needs. He had a secure job, a safe and environment to work and the freedom to do what he wants provided he adheres to the rules and regulations of the company and laws. Besides, his social needs were fulfilled since he belonged to a team within an organization. He is an employee of an organization and therefore he belongs to the organization. Regardless of missing an opportunity to be at a higher position, he is accepted by the organization through team dynamics (Sanzotta, D. 1977).
Self-esteem and self-actualization are the two levels that Simon has not yet achieved. The organization can ensure that Simon has achieved this need through recognizing the achievements that he has made. This will make him feel valued and appreciated. He should be provided with a challenge or a meaningful task that will enable him to be creative and innovative. This would least help him attain self –actualization.
There different leadership styles that a management can adopt to facilitate change. It is the responsibility of the management to choose or determine a suitable style because leadership has a direct cause as well as effect association upon an organization and its success. Leadership shapes the strategies of an institution. The effectiveness of implementation of strategic action depends on the form of leadership. Besides, there are situations where certain forms of leadership cannot yield desirable results. Thus, though leadership plays an important role in the successes of an organization, it is necessary to consider different types of leadership and their potential effects. This means that leadership style can facilitate or impede change and development in a company/organization. Different styles of leadership styles and their effects are discussed in the following sections.
The existing theories define leadership based on the way influence, power and traits are applied so as to realize the objectives. The descriptions that are founded on traits classifies leadership styles as democratic, autocratic, charismatic as well as charismatic. From authority and powers point of view, leadership can be described as either being transactional, situational or transformational. Organizations are free to adopt these forms of leadership and this explains why the quality of leadership varies across industries.
Leadership and their effects
The following are different leadership styles and their potential effects
In most cases, autocratic leadership does not produce good outcomes. Leaders who are autocratic are often classic. They are inexperienced individuals who are pushed or push themselves to a new position. Autocracy involves managing people. Individuals are not given a chance to make decisions. They are forced to follow rules, regulation and directions that are provide regardless of whether they are fair or not. This leadership approach can damage an organization since followers are forced to implement strategies as well as services which they do not have wide knowledge about. Individuals do not share vision and there is little motivation. Employees or followers are coerced to perform tasks. This leadership style does not encourage creativity, innovation and commitment. There are high chances that followers of such an autocratic leader are wasting time. Nevertheless, some may argue that this kind of leadership can be applied where people have failed to adhere to appropriate guidelines and regulations. But in real sense forceful actions lead to conflicts between parties and the ultimate outcome is failure.
Bureaucratic leadership style
This is a king of leadership that relies on the policies created by the leaders. Bureaucratic leaders use the procedure and policies that they set to realize the goals as well as the objective of the organization. Thus, policies are used to drive the formulation of strategies, their execution and outcomes. Those who adopt this form of leadership influence followers to adhere to the set policies. Commitment to procedure can be beneficial to an organization since activities are undertaken in an orderly manner. Although. Focusing on processes and procedures instead of individuals, make leaders appear reserved and rigid. Hence, problems may arise when such leadership style is embraced.
The problems related to this kind of leadership are not always obvious until a destruction occurs. The negative issues that are brought about by this type of leadership are due to the fact that motivation, personal development and other benefits are ignored. Policies, procedures, processes are always inadequate to the task of developing and motivating workers. Leaders create risks when they perceive that are more important than people. Complains raised by employees are usually resisted. With this form of leadership, employees are forced to follow a mechanical approach to issues and this denies them a chance to apply appropriate knowledge when dealing with certain issues. As a result, workers can be de-motivated and frustrated. This problems can be associates with autocratic form of leadership since the two leadership methods fail to facilitate motivation as well as the development of employees. The negative effects of bureaucratic leadership can outweigh the positive effects. Therefore, it is necessary to consider many factors before applying this leadership style.
This is a form of leadership where a group leads by itself rather than having one leader. Individuals are given a chance to participate in decision making process. Democratic leaders experience difficulties when they try to build a consensus. They need to use a lot of efforts when making final decisions regardless of whether the decision are ordinary or critical. Additionally, they may encounter problems when there is limited time available for a certain course of action to be implemented. Thu, there are high possibilities of making poor as well as weak executions especially urgent decisions. The greatest problem associated with democratic is the assumption that all individuals have a right to take part in the decision making process as well as equal and shared level of capability.
There are scholars who argue that this form of leadership is likely to yield a better outcome but this can only happen when it is embraced with limits. Managers who have implemented some elements of democratic leadership have experienced better outcomes. This is because through participative decision making, workers are motivated. Besides, they are given a chance to develop skills regrading decision making. Bureaucratic leadership is appropriate where long term decisions are made.
Charismatic leadership style
Charismatic leadership is a character-driven style of leadership that is more appealing and leads to success. Managers or leaders who have vision and personality that motivates those behind them are able to achieve anticipated outcomes. Hence, these type of leadership is highly valued. A management that executes vision and mission through charismatic approach has a fruitful or productive ground for creativity as well as innovation. This is because such managers are able to motivate followers through motivational talks among other ways. When charismatic leaders are at a high position within an organization, other members will always be willing to follow what they do. Though, charismatic has its own limitation. Such leaders can leave an organization and once they are gone, the organization is likely to lose the necessary direction. The organization can also struggle for years since leaders who are charismatic seldom create replacements. Their management styles are founded and built upon the strength of traits and personality.
According to situational leadership theory, the best leaders are those that are able to allow changes through the adoption of different styles of management depending of the existing situation. The theory portrays a stylish or cultures view of management or leadership in practice. These principle of leadership can be regarded as a valuable point of reference for seasoned and experienced leaders who understand the needs of an organization and the aspects of motivation. Situational leaders have the chance and the freedom to select a leadership approach that is suitable for specific situations.
Situational leadership has drawbacks that normally arise when the wrong style of headship is applied. In case a risky form of leadership is applied, it is necessary to come up with a disclaimer associated with unintended outcomes. This is essential especially when Autocratic or bureaucratic style is applied. Such leadership can only be effective when managers choose effective leadership styles which include transformational, charismatic as well as transactional.
Managers who are willing to give something or provide something because of following them exercise transactional form of leadership. Transaction leaders are ready to provide things like promotion, outstanding performance reviews, new duties or responsibilities and the change of responsibilities. This management style can easily yield good outcome. The traits of transactional style are almost the same as those for Charismatic style. Follower are always motivated to follow their leaders since they know that they would get something in return.
The limitation of transactional leadership is the high expectation. Followers have a lot of expectations form their heads. It becomes risky when a transaction leader does not have adequate resources that can enable him make a deal with his or her followers. Therefore, transactional leaders and managers should always aim at sustainability. This kind of leadership may not be beneficial for an organization that has limitation regarding its going concern.