I. Land reform and Agrarian Reform
Land reform or mainly called “Land redistribution”. It mainly refers to the right of owning a land.
Meanwhile, Agrarian Reform is much broader than land reform. It refers to changes that are made in the land tenure system. It covers issues such as, “who owns or does not own land”, how land is used or who shares to the products of the land”. It also pertains to land productivity and rate of agricultural development
2. Land redistribution
There is a so-called land-ownership and landlord class (upperclass/owners of land) receives rent from tenants such as farmers.
Large landed estates are expropriated by the state authority. These lands are then broken into small farms and distribute it to farmers. As distribution to farmers occur, gov’t will come in between to pay the landlords for the farmers. The NEW landowners has to find a means of paying the installment to the gov’t who took place in paying the landlords.
3. Philippine Land reform
CAR – Comprehensive Agrarian Reform
Republic Act 6657 in 1988 and ended last 2008.
An act instituting a comprehensive agrarian reform program to promote social justice and industrialization, providing the mechanism for its implementation, and for other purposes
1. Agrarian Reform – Distribution of land, regardless of crops and fruits produced, to farmers and farmworkers who are landless to help lift the economic status of the beneficiaries. 2. Agricultural Land – Land devoted to agricultural activities. Minerals, forest, residential, commercial or industrial lands are not included. 3. Farmer – Primary livelihood is cultivation of land or production of agricultural crops. 4. Farmworker – Render service as a laborer or employee in an agricultural enterprise or farm
* Every state should pursue a Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). Landless farmers and farmworkers will receive the highest consideration to promote social justice and to move the nation towards development and industrialization. * Distribution and ownership of lands shall take place to provide farmers and farmworkers with the opportunity to enhance and improve their quality of life.
* CARP is founded on the rights of landless farmers and farmworkers to own directly or collectively the lands they till or, to receive a just share of fruits thereof. * The state shall encourage and undertake the districution of all agricultural lands, subject to the priorities set by this act. Nevertheless, the state shall respect the rights of small landowners and shall provide incentives for land-sharing.
CARPER – Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Extension with Reforms Bill
Republic Act 9700
An act strengthening the comprehensive agrarian reform program (CARP,), extending the acquisition and distribution of all agricultural lands, instituting necessary reforms, amending for the purpose certain provision of republic act no. 6657, and appropriating funds therefor.
Some of the amendments are;
1. CARPER primarily extends the redistribution of lands for 5 years. 2. It also redefines the scope and some definitions in CAR 3. In Sec. 18, the CARPER also mandates that all land reform cases must be under the jurisdiction of the DAR except for cases falling under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture and the DENR. Only the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to issue any restraining order or writ of preliminary injuction against the Presidential Agrarian Reform Council (PARC), the DAR, and other related agencies on agrarian reform cases.
4. A new Congressional Oversight Committee on Agrarian Reform (COCAR) is also created by virtue of the CARPER, composed of the Chairpersons of the Agrarian Reform Committees of both Houses and three members each from the Upper and Lower House, to be designated respectively by the Senate President and the House Speaker. 5. It also incorporates a new section into the existing CARL, Section 37-A, specifically mandating the inclusion of equal support services for rural women and the establishment of a women’s desk under the DAR.
According to GMA news, Aquino stated that one of the ways in which CARPER will quickly be implemented is with a multi-stakeholders mechanism. They will be tasked to mnitor the implementation of the CARP specifically focusing on;
1. Coverage and distribution of agricultural land
2. Movement and performance of Department of Agrarian Reform personnel
3. Delivery support services to the beneficiaries, and
4. Budget allocation and utilization
RA 9700 has allocated ate least P150 billion for the program which will be utilized to successfully complete the implementation of agrarian reform.
Aquino and the land reform advocates adopted the commitment made by Interior Secretary Jesse Robredo during a meeting with the farmers last June 12, 2012. Robredo committed the government to:
– work on a list of areas where there are CARPER enforcement issues, – review the PNP’s tasking and refer to the DOJ the proposed changes in 2009 guidelines, as it applies to DAR orders, – establish PNP outpost in critical areas where installed farmers are being harassed, and – establish a direct line of communication with the DILG.
Sicat, G. (1983). Economics. NationalBook Store Publishers. Metro Manila Philippines. www.gmanetwork.com/news