June 23, 2016 became very important day for the all citizens of the United Kingdom as citizens had to do very important choice what had significance for the whole world. It was a date when Great Britain held an international referendum, where there was just one question Should the United Kingdom remain a member of the European Union or leave the European Union?. The society was divided into Remainers (British people who wanted to remain the EU) and Leavers (who wanted to leave the EU).
The issue of working migration, future political relations economic insecurity were particularly important concerns that found expression in the referendum, and these were successfully harnessed and articulated by the Leave campaigns. With the results 52 per cent against 48 per cent the idea of Brexit won. Brexit (short form of British exit) is a process of leaving Britain the EU as its member. However, it was not the first time when the UK was held a poll. In 1975, the first ever Britain’s national referendum took place.
The one and most important question was: Do you think that the United Kingdom should stay in the European Community (the Common Market)?. The previous time more than 67 per cent of citizens voted for it. It happened in two years after the UK became a member of the EU. But even the question of what to call the EU can cause confusion. What became the European Union was originally established as the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951, followed by the main European Economic Community (EEC) by the 1957 Treaty of Rome (Bomberg, 2012, 4). It was original version of the European Union, which was created just in 1992, more than in 40 years after creation of ECSC. Joining the EEC was a pragmatic economic choice and not an indication of any commitment to greater political unity with continental Europe (Staiger, 2018, 48). During the campaign one expert survey of nearly 600 journalists, academic and pollsters asked them to share their predictions of the result. Overall, some 87 per cent thought that the country would vote to remain in the EU and only 5 per cent predicted a Brexit (Clarke, 2017, 3). Clearly Brexit will have influence on relations between the UK and the EU. One of the most influenced and hurtable consequences of Brexit will be movement of workers from Europe who work in the UK, as it is still not understandable how will they work after implications of Brexit? EU membership has had extensive impact on British politics, economy and society (Geddes, 2013, 26). No one definitely knows what will be after, but it is understandable that lots of things will have significant and serious changes. The most important questions are: How will work international companies (touch on a question of the trade between the EU and the UK)? What will be with working migration? And how will change political relations within the UK and the EU and outside? Trade of European Union companies on the territory of Great Britain Great Britain is not just a part of EU, it is also a member of Single Market and Customs Union. It means that people and goods can move freely across all borders of European Union without any tariffs and visas. But whether people wanted or not, after March 2019 there will be some changes.There are two main variants of future actions: Soft Brexit and Hard Brexit. In the variant of soft Brexit the UK will stay close to European economic rules and standards what should minimize the damage for trade. The United Kingdom will continue to pay some money to the European Union, and Britain will stay a member of Single Market and Customs Union. For the UK it also will mean no trade deals with other countries which do not have any trade agreements with the EU. Hard Brexit will mean breaking any relations with the European Customs Union and the Single Market what means that freedom of movement will end for both goods and people. Such step can develop for the UK to create its own trade rules. In the variant of choosing one of this two variants, a transition period will continue till the end of 2020. But there is also a third one variant of future scenario ” no deal. In this variant the UK will pay the same taxes as any other countries which do not have any trade agreements with EU. The same will do EU countries which will send their goods to Great Britain. It will create borders for international trade between the European Union and the United Kingdom. So if till the end of March, 2019 governments cannot find the solution of what kind of Brexit will be, The UK will leave the EU with no deal, business and British and European international companies can suffer a lot. At the same time, the status of London as the international business center (London City) can run into danger. London is the biggest financial center in Europe now and it is counted as one of the biggest and most important financial centers in the world. For saving free access to Single Market the European companies can transfer their operations from London to other cities of the European Union, giving them in such way economic preferences. It can lead to undervaluation of London as economic and political center. Moreover, it is expected falling of the British currency on about 15 percent for the next year. There is a risk that pound can equal in value with euro. In the nearest future it is also expected falling of tempo of growing of GDP. Leaving the European Union, the United Kingdom also will leave the biggest market of international trade. It means that for doing trade with the EU countries Britain should pay some extra fees. Clearly it will have a big have influence on business. This situation can change just signing new trade agreement with the EU where Great Britain obviously should make concession. For British business is very important to save Great Britain as a member of Single Market. But it seems like is going to be some limitations and exceptions like for non-EU country. It has to be decided all trade questions what will appear after British exit.Working migration One of the fundamental principles of the European Union is that the EU citizens can move freely within the territory of Great Britain. But it is what we have now. Clearly Brexit will have influence on relations between the UK and the EU. One of the most influenced and hurtable consequences of Brexit will be movement of workers from Europe who work in the UK, as it is still not clearly understandable how will they work after implications of Brexit? Rules for workers from the EU will become more strictly. It is quite possible that there will be introduced a new immigration system, which will make the entry for the EU citizens more complicate. After Brexit transition period, all migrants planning to live and work in Britain would have to demonstrate they are sufficiently skilled by meeting a minimum salary threshold. That figure has not yet been specified but, at present, non-EU migrants must earn more than Ј30,000 a year to work in the UK (Financial Times from October 2, 2018). The Cabinet of Ministers supported a migration system which is based on the qualifications of immigrants, not on their citizenship. These limitations will lead to the situation that low-skilled workers from the European Union will not have ability to go for a work to the United Kingdom. There is a big need in people from working class now and most part of them are the European Union citizens. After implication of Brexit, in March 2019, workers from the EU should return home. Clearly it will have influence on British economic. The data of migration showed that Britain still attracts workers from the European Union, what is allowed in present time as Britain as still a member of the European Union. But it is present situation and it is not clear understandable how will it work after Brexit. There is also a great demand in season workers, most part of them also came from Europe. There are no rules for such workers now what creates problems not just for workers who are looking for a work, but also for business and land owners who are risked to get a lack of season workers. So this migration law will allow to come to the United Kingdom for work just to high-skilled workers. This law can create danger that business can suffer because of the outflow of low-skilled labor from the EU. Moreover, British exit can create borders not just for workers but also for people who want to go to Britain or European Union for holidays or like tourists. In the variant of Hard Brexit or No Deal scenario the EU and the UK citizens will need to apply for a visa to go in countries of each other. Political relations within the UK and the EU The current geopolitical position of the United Kingdom can be called the most indefinite among the world’s leading countries. The theme of Brexit is dominated in current foreign policy at Great Britain and now it is looking for a new format for cooperation with the rest of Europe and the whole world. In fact, it is difficult to predict how Britain’s foreign policy will change in the near future because of the indefinite position of the UK to the EU. It is expected that the EU and Britain will find a compromise in a variant of international cooperation. According to the Article 50 The Lisbon Treaty: A Member State which decides to withdraw shall notify the European Council of its intention. In the light of the guidelines provided by the European Council, the Union shall negotiate and conclude an agreement with that State, setting out the arrangements for its withdrawal, taking account of the framework for its future relationship with the Union. It means that country should vote for the agreement reached by the government of Teresa May with Brussels to leave the EU. But the British Parliament still did not vote for that. The voting should define what Great Britain will do with its relations with the European Union. As it was said below, there are two main variants of future actions: Soft Brexit and Hard Brexit. Parliament should choose one of these variants. In the variant of soft Brexit The UK will stay close to European economic rules and standards what should minimize the damage for trade. Hard Brexit will mean breaking any relations with the European Customs Union and the Single Market. It means that Britain will cooperate with the European Union as any other country who is a member of World Trade Organisation (WTO). Future international relations of Great Britain with the European Union will depend on which variant will be chosen. In the case if the United Kingdom cannot agree with the European Union, Britain will leave the European Union with no deal. This is the variant which no one in Parliament wants to get and politicians cannot agree what will be in no-deal Brexit.The British government payed all attention to such questions as migration, rights of European and British citizens on residence and work after Brexit and optional variants of trade agreements and political relations between the UK and the EU. But talking about Brexit and future international relations, it is very important take into consideration an Irish border question. Ireland is a just one country what has land borders with the UK. There is one very important question now: what to do with borders? Is it needed to change from an internal to an external EU border? The question of the territorial integrity of Northern Ireland with the rest of Great Britain is the question what should be one of the most important now. In XX century there was a conflict about the territory of Northern Ireland. Ireland and Great Britain could not divide the territory of Northern Ireland. Belfast Agreement or Good Friday Agreement put the end to that conflict. According to the agreement relinquished claims over the territory of Northern Ireland and this part of island was fixed as the part of the United Kingdom. But Brexit can break Belfast Agreement as citizens from Northern Ireland are against leaving the European Union. More than half of citizens in Northern Ireland voted against Brexit on referendum in 2016. Ireland’s law allows to get Irish citizenship to everyone who lives in Northern Ireland and who has at least one parent who is Irish. About 6 million British citizens used this law during the last 2 years. The reason for it was one ” people wanted to stay in the European Union. Moreover, creating borders between Ireland and Northern Ireland will present problems for trade as Ireland is the biggest trade partner for Northern Ireland. About 35 per cent of farming is sent to the Ireland. The agricultural sector of Northern Ireland can lose about 80 per cent of its profits after March, 2019. Clearly Brexit will lead to a negative economic impact for Northern Ireland. Conclusion For certain Brexit was a big shock and stress for British economy. But on the other hand, British exit will mean for the European Union losing its stance as the most powerful political union in international political arena. In person of the UK the EU will lose important member of international negotiations who is very important for making decisions. The voice of Great Britain is significant for solving international problems. Currently the most important problems, which are discussed now on international level, are crisis of migration and Russian aggression to Ukraine. Brexit means Brexit ” it is very famous statement of current prime minister Theresa May, which defines modern situation. Everyone knows what means Brexit, but no one knows what will be after. Brexit will have significant consequences for the country, for Europe, and for global order. And yet much discussion of Brexit in the UK has focused on the causes of the vote and on its consequences for the future of British politics. Obviously, the nature of its relationship with the European Union will change Leaving the EU means a number of changes that will affect businesses and individual citizens. The effects of Brexit across a range of areas, including institutional relations, political economy, law and justice, foreign affairs, democratic governance. an understanding of the causes of Brexit continues to be of central importance. The process of Britain leaving the EU will take many years, far longer than the two years laid down in the agreements covering this contingency (Clarke, 2017, 202). The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is counted now as one of the leading countries in the European Union. It is strong, powerful, with a financial stability and well organized military system. But it is now. And no one can say how its position will change in the future after leaving the EU. It is clear that Brexit is a shock for economic system of the country what can lead to probably negative consequences for level of life in Great Britain. It includes working migration, ability to buy what you want (question of international trade) and ability to travel freely to the EU countries.Future international relations of Great Britain with the European Union will depend on which variant of Brexit will be chosen. What will happen after? It depends on politician and how they will come to an agreement. And here the most important is right work and cooperation of British politicians who can carry interests of their country on international level. It is possible that the government will not be able to adhere to the most optimistic scenario of the future events. In this case, the country will enter into a difficult transition period of economic instability and a long-term approval of the new trade relations with the European Union.