INSTITUTION: ST PAULS UNIVERSITY- NAKURU CAMPUSUNIT TITTLE: PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENTUNIT CODE: BMA 207SUBMITTED TO: VINCENT OCHIENGSUBMITTED BY: ISAAC KIPKORIR NGETICH : BBAMDIST442419TASK: CAT 2SUBMITTED ON: 17TH JULY 2019BMA 207 ASSIGNMENTDiscuss the principles and roles TQM in the performance of operations functions(8 Marks)Total Quality Management Principles, Concept and ImportanceTotal quality management is an approach which ensures that all staff members are involved in order to improve the process, products, services and culture of work. In this process clerical, production and low-level managers are involved.

The objective of TQM is to ensure that the right things are done for the first time continuously in order to save time the organization would have spent in correcting errors.TQM have the following benefits, it reduces cost, improve staff morale, reduce errors and increases customer satisfaction.Total Quality Management works better in organizations where management strongly supports these principles for example in production of Tea leaves by mult-national and KTDA companies in kenya.Total Quality Management PrinciplesThe principle of TQM revolves around the customer, quality of work, mutual respect and team work.

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Improvement involves constant analysis of the way work is carried out in order to determine more effective and efficient way of making improvements and achieving excellence.Benefits of TQM principles1. Foster mutual respect and team work amongst the employees this is because TQM principles foster a single ” organizational culture of excellence and ensures that employees uphold the same principles of work.2. It helps organization to put strategic approaches in the place so as to ensure the quality of products and services, also ensures that their suppliers offer quality products.3. Product and services must be designed in a way that its attributes, convince and functionality satisfy customers Principles of TQMIn most organization TQM principles serve as a guide in the right direction and the following are 8 principles of TQM Principle 1: Customer focusThis principle stresses that an organization should understand its customers, what they need and when they need it while trying to meet and exceed their expectations.When revenue increases, and waste reduces a business seeks opportunities to satisfy its customers. Hence, the principle of customer focus covers both the needs of customers and customer service.Principle 2: LeadershipLeadership- Good leaders helps in building unity in organization and give people a sense of direction. They create and nurture an environment where everyone’s views are given careful consideration in charting a course to the organizational objectives.Without clear leadership, an organization loses its direction. This principle states that leaders are fundamental in setting clear goals and objectives and ensuring that employees are actively involved in achieving these objectives.Principle 3: People involvementWhen people are involved in most activities of an organization they become innovative, eager to participate and creative in furthering the organization’s goal and objectivesPrinciple 4: Process approachThis principle explain that organization will attain its expected result when related resources and activities are managed as a process. Therefore this hence the speed of activities, improve consistency, eliminate waste, reduces cost and promote continuous improvement.Principle 5: System approach to managementThis principle can be define as identifying, understanding and managing interrelated process as a system contributes to the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency in attaining its objectivesPrinciple 6: Continuous improvementThis is practice which requires all business need to adjust to new market situations and it should be a permanent objective of any organization.Principle 7: Factual approach to decision-makingThis is a principle which involves effective decision and action based on data available hence a decision with clarity and objective will be made.Principle 8: Mutually beneficial supplier relationshipsThis principle ensures that there is independence of organization from suppliers,this will encourage productivity and working valuesConcept of Total Quality ManagementThe basic concept of total quality management can be discuss further as follows;Continuous improvement of qualityThe main aim of TQM is to improve the quality of products and services in any organization hence it will improve productivity, employability and customer service.Focus on the customerThis states that the internal and external recipient of an organization’s products, therefore there is desired quality of goods and servicesOperations improvementThis concept explain that work processes should be studied, through individuals or teams, to identify lapses or complexities.Solutions can be tested to prevent them from occurring in the future, the cost will be reduced and quality achieved.Human resourcesThis involves improving learning and development of employees also the improvement of of work environment as well as extensive education to help employees updatedTQM leadershipThis concept states the goals of management which ensures that a better job should be done by management the role of management as a facilitators and as agents of quality management in an organization.Importance of Total Quality ManagementBelow are some of the benefits of TQM for the organization.1. Quality products and services2. Customer satisfaction3. Increased profitsDiscuss the major characteristics and steps in forecasting(10 Marks) ForecastingForecasting refers to predicting what will happen in the future by taking into consideration the events in the past and present. Basically, it is a decision-making tool that helps businesses cope with the impact of the future’s uncertainty. It is as much a planning tool that enables businesses to plan their next moves and create budgets that will offset whatever uncertainties that may occur.Forecasting MethodsBusinesses choose between two basic methods when they want to predict what can possibly happen in the future, namely the qualitative and quantitative methods.1. Qualitative methodAlso known as the judgmental method, qualitative forecasting results in subjective results because they consist of the personal judgments by experts or forecasters. They are also often biased because they are based on the expert’s knowledge, and experience, and rarely on data, making the process non-mathematical.2. Quantitative methodThe quantitative method of forecasting is a mathematical process, making it consistent and objective. It steers away from basing the results on opinion and intuition, instead utilizing large amounts of data and figures that are interpreted.Features of ForecastingHere are some of the features of making a forecast:1. Involves future events2. Based on past and present events3. uses forecasting techniquesThe Process of ForecastingForecasters need to follow the process in order to yield accurate results. Here are the steps in the process:1. Develop the basis of forecastingThe first step in the process is developing the basis of the investigation of the company’s condition and identifying where the business is currently positioned in the market.2. Estimate the future operations of the businessBased on the investigation conducted during the first step, the second part of forecasting involves estimating the future conditions of the industry where the business operates and analyzing how the company will fare.3. Regulate the forecastThis involves looking at different forecasts in the past and comparing them with the actual things that happened in the business. The differences in the results and forecast are analyzed, and the reasons for the deviations are determined.4. Review the processEvery step is checked, and refinements and modifications are made.Sources of Data for Forecasting1. Primary sourcesThey take time to gather because they are first-hand information, but they are also considered the most reliable and trustworthy. It is the forecaster himself who does the collection, and he does it through questionnaires, interviews and focus groups.2. Secondary sourcesAs secondary sources, they’ve already been collected and published by other agencies. They are useful in the sense that these are just compiled and analyzed, making the process quicker.Explain the characteristics of Just in time scheduling technique in a manufacturing set up.(8 Marks) It has now come to mean producing with minimum waste. “Waste” is taken in its most general sense and includes time and resources as well as materials. Elements of Just In TIME include:Continuous improvement. Eliminating waste.Good housekeeping – workplace cleanliness and organization.Set-up time reduction – increases flexibility and allows smaller batches. Kanbans – simple tools to `pull’ products and components through the process.Jidoka (Autonomation) – providing machines with the autonomous capability to use judgement, so workers can do more useful things than standing watching them work.Andon (trouble lights) – to signal problems to initiate corrective action. Discuss the elements of an operations process planning Process planning defines the means of production that are deployed for a production process. In the case of machining, also defines the cutting parameters. As the cutting parameters have an influence on the resulting costs and obtained quality, process planning is responsible for the efficiency of the production. Process deployment Its purpose is to determine the manufacturing processes that actually produce the product, by relating various product features to specific manufacturing operations. The critical product feature requirements identified in the previous stage are listed in the horizontal portion of the matrix. Main Components of Operations ManagementThe main components of operations management include the following:Forecasting – Component that caters to historical data, facts, figures, and statistics within the organization. Location strategies – Oversees product base, market base, and vertically differentiated locations. Maintenance – Locates methods to reduce frequency of failures within the production facility. Purchasing – Could be either centralized, decentralized, or combined. Scheduling – Pertains to scheduling of equipment or labor. Total Quality Management (TQM) – Enables the organization to work toward zero defects within the organization. Quality – The overall ability to meet consumer expectations in terms of product quality.Just In Time – System that will match stock availability with demand; can also have stock arriving exactly when needed. Materials Requirements Planning – Effectively manages inventory levels to ensure for cost reduction. Process and System Performance – Measured through examination, capacity utilization, or production. Layout of Facilities – Ensure for a smooth workflow. Inventory Management – Adequately controlling stock within an organization. Describe any four types of job systemsThe Four types of job1. Thinkers: These people are the idea generators, strategists, and creative types. They are at the front end of the growth curve, and their work covers new products, new business ideas, and different ways of doing everyday things. Sometimes they get in the way once the company or projects begin to grow. An example of a performance objective for the Thinker could be, develop a workaround to the technical bottleneck to ensure the launch date is met.2. Builders: These people take ideas from the Thinker and convert them into reality. Entrepreneurs, project managers and turnaround executives are typical jobs that emphasize the Builder component. They thrive in rapid change situations, make decisions with incomplete information and can create some level of order out of chaos. They feel strangled in bigger organizations3. Improvers: These are the people who take an existing project, process or team, organize it and make it better. In a moderately growing company they are charged with upgrading a new system, converting an outdated process or rebuilding a department. 4. Producers: Technical skills dominate the manufacturers. A pure Producer is someone who executes a repeatable process on a regular basis. More often, the manufacturers is a component of the job, for example, combining problem-solving ie the Thinker with some technical process to implement a solution

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