As development and advancement has become one of the major objectives and concerns of developing, as well as, developed countries of the world, a number of conflicts and issues have emerged in various parts that have deteriorated the nations economically, politically, culturally, as well as psychologically. Inconsistencies have become major components of this world, especially, politically globe that has been worsened a lot due to issues related to the sovereignty of different states, religion, human rights, terrorism, etc. (Lakos, pp.23-25)
Aftermath of Wars
It has been observed that various wars have been the results of extreme circumstances between two or more than two countries that have initiated them due to sensitive issues.
Moreover, millions of people have died, thousands of homes have vanished, similar number of people have vanished and lost their loved ones, and many resources have deteriorated due to these wars in different regions of the planet. In the result, a need for discussing these issues was felt by most of the political participants of the world.
Thus, negotiation has been referred as one of the vital and crucial tools for the improvement of extreme political circumstances, as well as for the elimination of any risks related to the commencement of a war, which could result in heavy corrosion of the world. Specifically, a number of influences and authorities interact with each other for the resolution of any conflict between two nations, cultures, political parties, organizations, individuals, etc.
Standard Negotiation Mechanism
In the process of a negotiation, specific courses of action are agreed, as well as disagreed by the parties, and a mutual decision is bargained from both sides for the attainment of a cooperative and combined decision. However, it is not necessary that negotiations may end up in mutual decisions every time, but they have been considered as an important and effective tool for the eradication of extremism from the world. As earlier mentioned in the paper, international concerns have been changed dramatically since some decades.
In the result, a number of fields, such as politics, security, environment, culture, trade, etc. have confronted interdependence, which can be exemplified significantly. Moreover, nationalistic, cultural, religious, and political issues have emerged as conflicts that are being increased, and can be strongly contrasted with the abovementioned confrontation of interdependence of specific circumstances. In the result, a mechanism of international negotiation or arbitration has been introduced for the seeking of resolution and decision by these contradictory trends around the world.
Establishment and prevalence has been observed in the implementation and utilization of negotiations in the international world. It has been observed that international, as well as national disputes are resolved and managed by both official, as well as unofficial organizations and individuals by the facilitation of most important and nonviolent tools of the present era. Every nation or country has different set of goals that are considered in different phases of development and advancement.
Practice and Research of Negotiations as Tool of Pluralism
In this regard, these goals are jointly satisfied and achieved by the agreements that are mutually accepted by two parties. (Albin, pp. 41-44) While the progress has been observed in the practice of international negotiations, rapid expansion has been observed in its research. In this regard, a number of scholars from various fields, such as economics, trade, law, politics, religion, anthropology, etc. have emerged for the provision of better understanding of the important tool, the international negotiation.
Thus, a diversified audience has become involved in the support and advancement of this virtual tool of pluralism in this global village. In this regard, this paper will try to discuss, compare, and evaluate different approaches of international negotiations, as well as, analyze different cases from the past that have involved the negotiations between two nations, parties, individuals, etc from different angles and perspectives. Theoretical establishments will be explored, and practical application of these negotiations will be promoted in this paper.
Examples of Negotiations Since Ancient Times
We have already defined and discussed the brief definition of the negotiation, as the process of bargaining for the attainment of a mutual decision, which may support in the removal of any risks related with the commencement of a war in the region. Different experts and professionals have related the existence and practice of negotiations in the ancient history of the humankind. The Amarna Letters have been associated with the international negotiations in an unusual viewpoint. In these letters, pharaonic Egypt have corresponded with their opponents during the 14th century B. C.
In addition, contemporary great kings of that time were also involved in these correspondences, which were meant for the attainment of a mutual decision. Thus, this practice of negotiating with the opponent has been a part of our history since ancient times. During this era, legal, dynastic, and intentional issues were considered for the commencement of negotiations that were quite detailed in nature. Interestingly, friendship, goodwill, and a concept of family were highlighted in most of the ancient letters and evidences of international negotiations. (Mautner-Markhof, pp. 20-22)
Role of Environment and Objectives Common for Parties
In this regard, an important and vital role can be played by the friendship in the implementation of practice of negotiations internationally. A lasting agreement can be attained quite easily in a friendly environment, rather than a violent and opponent-oriented one. Thus, it has been evaluated by most of the experts that the negotiation process is influenced by reciprocation and generosity significantly, and the probability of agreement is increased in this aspect. Moreover, the metaphor of partnerships can be used for the better understanding of bilateral negotiations.
In this respect, interests, values, objectives, cultures, etc. of one individual or party are different from the other one; however, limited common purposes are shown and shared with each other. Thus, coalition building plays an important role in the attainment of an agreement from the negotiations. Common objectives are highlighted by the implementation of coalition building, and the complication and intricacy is reduced that are usually confronted during the multilateral negotiations in almost every region of the world.
Role of Partinerships and Coalitions
In partnerships, certain roles are assumed by the participants by which process of negotiation may be driven or defended. In addition, power struggles and mutual relationships are managed by the implementation of differentiated performances. Moreover, sharing of goals is done by the development of optimistic strategies and deterioration of counterstrategies are avoided by the protection during these partnerships.
In this regard, it has been analyzed and noted by various experts that international negotiations are influenced significantly by the coalition building, and common objectives and mutual relationships can be achieved by its implementation in the international negotiations. (Albin, pp. 59-63)
Another perspective of international negotiation has been identified by some experts, and a referral of an interactive activity of problem solving has been provided by them. It has been noted that a problem is shared by the parties during a conflict, and different processes are implemented for the resolution of the same problem.
- In this regard, fundamental causes and dynamics of an issue are addressed during this activity. It has been observed that a third party is also involved in this perspective of the international negotiation, where problem-solving workshops are introduced and practiced by the dominant representatives of nations and a platform is provided unofficially for the attainment of a mutual relationship. During the implementation of this approach, four fundamentals of negotiation have been identified by the experts that are considered important for the success of a negotiation.
- In this respect, a problem is identified and analyzed in the commencement of negotiation.
- Secondly, different ideas and concepts are shaped jointly for the achievement of a resolution or solution. Thirdly, either side tries to influence one another for the bargaining of a decision. Moreover, a political environment is created that may support the abovementioned processes.
- Lastly, a larger negotiation process is established for the integration of identified tools and strategies for the resolution of the identified problem.
(Lall, pp. 71-75) In the international arena, various laws and policies are created for their implementation in different sectors, such as trade, immigration, economics, culture, etc in different regions of the world. During the creation of these policies, a number of diplomatic methods are integrated for the effective accomplishments, and thus, international negotiations play an important role in the creation of laws that may control and manage the political, economical, and cultural circumstances in the international arena.