In recent years, an increased research attention has been paid to the need for organizations to learn about and respond flexibility to various demands from dynamic competitive environments (Sheaffer, Carmeli, Steiner-Revivo, & Zionit, 2009). Most researchers have argued that to learn and adapt to the environment are inflexibility and inability among the most critical factors that prevent organizational success (Weeks, Roberts, Chonko, & Jones, 2004). Increased globalization and international commerce, rapid technological advances, greater diversity in the workplace, changing employment relationships, changing business ethical values and stakeholder demands, and the like, are just some of the issues confronting organizations and challenging leaders (Nesbit & Lam, 2014).
Employee performance is important for an organization to achieve its goals and objectives. Employees are a valuable asset to an organization that may affect it either positively or negatively. Due to unavoidable environmental changes, organizations today have been challenged to advocate for changes that influence employees’ performance. Therefore, the top management has to ensure factors that influence employees’ performance are taken into consideration.
Management can be defined as a creative and systematic flow of knowledge that can be applied to achieve quality results by using human as well as other resources in an effective way. The importance of management in organizations today has increased multi-fold. Strategic outcomes depend on ways of management in organization, hereby key management functions that include learning to delegate, planning, organizing, communicating clearly, motivating employees, adapting to change and constantly generating innovative ideas are crucial. Furthermore, Kitur (2015) is of the view that change comes in an organization in many forms such joint venture, acquisition, merger, organizational restructuring, new leadership, technology implementation, and change in products or regulatory compliance. Change management can be defined as a style of management that aims to encouraging organizations and individuals to deal effectively with the changes taking place in their work. Organizational change can be radical and alter the way an organization operates, or it may be incremental and slowly change the way things are done. The changing may be planned years in advance or may be forced upon an organization because of a shift in the environment (Kagwiria & Wanza, 2016).In addition, the changing nature of work, brought on by rapid shifts in technology, the rising use of self-managed and semi-autonomous teams, increased dependence on contingent workers and a transition from hierarchal, job-based to reciprocal, employee- based management, have led to the need for an increasingly adaptive workforce (Campbell, 1999). The clear cut titles and responsibilities that once found that the roles of individuals in an organization are becoming more ambiguous, fluid, and boundary, leading some authors to conclude that the concept of a “job” is likely to one day become obsolete (e.g., Bridges, 1994). Recognizing the increasing turbulence within and around organizations and the subsequent need for employees to react to change, researchers have introduced the concept of adaptive performance (Alan & Journal, 2015).The global manufacturing sector has undergone a tumultuous decade, large developing economies leaped into the first tier of manufacturing nations, a severe recession choked off demand, and manufacturing employment fell at an accelerated rate in advanced economies. Still, manufacturing remains critically important to both the developing and the advanced world. In the latter, it remains a vital source of innovation and competitiveness, making outsized contributions to research and development, exports, and productivity growth. In the former, it continues to provide a pathway from subsistence agriculture to rising incomes and living standards. But the manufacturing sector has changed, bringing both challenges and opportunities and neither business leaders nor policy makers can rely on responses in the new manufacturing environment.Manufacturing is the most important cause of economic growth. The growth of manufacturing machinery output and technological improvements in that machinery are the main drivers of economic growth. No machinery industries, no sustained, long-term economic growth. Just consider the explosion of the Internet, iPhones, and the like all made possible by a small subset of production machinery called semiconductor-making equipment (SME), which itself is dependent on other forms of production machinery, such as the machine tools that grind the lenses they use or the alloys of metal the metal-making industries output. The technological and productive potential of machine tools and SMEs affect each other as well, leading to the explosive economic growth of the last two hundred years. These technologies reproduce themselves, as when an SME makes the semiconductors that then go to make more SMEs, or when a machine tool makes the metal components that not only go into other pieces of machinery, such as cars, but are used to produce yet more machine tools.