In recent research in metropolitan cities the parking management problem can be Essay

In recent research in metropolitan cities the parking management problem can be viewed from several angles. High vehicle density on roads. This results in annoying issue for the drivers to park their vehicles as it is very difficult to find a parking slot. The drivers usually waste time and effort in finding parking space and end up parking their vehicles finding a space on streets. In worst case, people fail to find any parking space especially during peak hours and festive seasons.

2.2 PROPOSED SOLUTIONThis paper proposes a Smart Parking Reservation System using RF which provides advanced features like remote parking monitoring, automated guidance, and parking reservation mecha- nism. The paper describes the overall system architecture of SPARK from hardware to software implementation in the view point of sensor networks. We implemented a full-fledged prototype system for parking management to realize the design functionalities and features mentioned. Here we use IR sensors for monitoring and displaying the status of car parking in LCD.

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The RF message IS fed to microcontroller using UART communication. The RD25 microcontroller processes the requested message and it will check the availability of space in parking area using IR sensor. If the parking slot available means the microcontroller replies with slot no, password and time to be arrival to parking area else controller replies unavailable status to requested Driver.Four IR-sensors are connected to the controller, which are in turn connected to the respective gates (Ex Enter, Exit). Depending up on the presence of object at the IR at the gates the motor is used to open or close the gates. LCD is used to display required messages, RTC (Real Time Clock) for monitoring time and EEPROM to manage the slots. Figure 2.1: Proposed System2.2.1 System RequirementsRecent increase in the growth of automotive industry coupled with the perpetual demand of commuters urged the need for better and smarter parking mechanisms. Most of the existing parking management systems rarely address the issues of parking space management, vehicle guidance, parking lot reservation etc. This will commonly use of these components.1. 8051 Development Board8051 Development Board support major chips From Philips For programming that are flash programmable microcontrollers that supports serial programming of devices. Flash microcontroller can be erased and re-written as many times as possible. Flexibility to reprogram number of times and its low cost make it ideal for use in a wide areas of appli- cations. This product is a combination of intelligent hardware and software. Dimensions: 180mm x 100mm ,Power Supply: AC or DC Adapter 12V, Interface: RS-232, 9-pin D connector ,Data Speed: 9600 bps, 8 bits, no parity, 1 stop, no flow control ,File format: Intel 8-bit HEX ,Program Sockets: 40 pin DIP – 0.6 ,Software: Works on Windows 95, 98, Me, 2000, NT, XP.2. Pin DescriptionThe AT89C51 is a low-power high performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 4bytes of Flash programmable and Erasable Read only Memory (EPROM).The AT89C51 provides the following standard features: Single supply +5v operation using HMOS technology 4096 bytes program memory on-chip (not on 8031) 128 bytes data memory on-chip Four register banks 64 kilo bytes each program and external RAM addressability One micro second instruction cycle with 12 MHz crystal 32 bidirectional I/O lines organized as four 8-bit ports (16 lines on 8031) Two 16-bit timer/counter Five vector two level interrupt architecture A full display serial port On chip oscillator and clock circuitry3. Power SupplyThe microcontroller and other devices get power supply from AC to Dc adapter through 7805, 5 volts regulator. The adapter output voltage will be 12V DC non-regulated. The 7805/7812 voltage regulators are used to convert 12 V to 5V/12V DC. The adapter output voltage will be 12V DC non-regulated. The 7805/7812 voltage regulators are used to convert 12 V to 5V/12V DC.Figure 2.2: Power Supply4. LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY)LCDs can add a lot to your application in terms of providing an useful interface for the user, debugging an application or just giving it a professional look. The most common type of LCD controller is the Hitachi 44780 that provides a relatively simple interface between a processor and an LCD. Inexperienced designers do often not attempt using this interface and programmers because it is difficult to find good documentation on the interface, initializing the interface can be a problem and the displays themselves are expensive. LCD has single line display, Two-line display, four line display. Every line has 16 characters.Figure 2.3: An alphanumeric LCD, with four lines of 16 characters5. SensorsTransducers are the basic sensing elements of a measurement system. They are also known as the primary sensing elements. The first block of any measuring instrument is usually a sensor. No measurement system is complete without a sensor. The transducer basically receives the energy from the measured medium and produces the output depending on the measured quantity. The output of the transducer is some physical variable such as displacement or voltage. This variable is converted into another form such that the signal is not altered.Active transducer: These transducers have an auxiliary power source which supply the major part of the output power while the input signal supplies only an insignificant portion. There may or may not be a conversion from one form to the other. Eg. Microswitch, electronic amplifier, etc.Passive transducers: In these transducers the output energy is almost or entirely supplied by its input signal. The output and the input energy may be of the same form, say mechanical or of different form (say mechanical and electrical)6. Driver Circuit (DC Motor)Here the driver circuits are used to control the operations of firing unit, laser unit audio reception unit present on the robotic module. Here three types of driver circuits are used they are ground driver, laser driver and motor driver circuit. NR-DC-ECO is high quality low cost DC geared motor. It contains Brass gears and steel pinions to ensure longer life and better wear and tear properties. The gears are fixed on hardened steel spindles polished to a mirror finish. These spindles rotate between bronze plates which ensures silent running. The output shaft rotates in a sintered bushing. The whole assembly is covered with a plastic ring. All the bearings are permanently lubricated and therefore require no maintenance. The motor is screwed to the gear box from inside.Figure 2.4: 12v 100 rpm DC Geared Motor7. GSMIn this Project it is proposed to design an embedded system which is used for tracking and positioning of any vehicle by using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global system for mobile communication (GSM). The power is supplied to components like GSM, GPS and Micro control circuitry using a 12V/3.2A battery .GSM requires 12v,GPS and microcontroller requires 5v .with the help of regulators we regulate the power between three components.The GSM air interface provides the physical link between the mobile and the network. GSM is a digital system employing time division multiple access (TDMA) technique and operates at 900 MHz. The CEPT(conference of European post and telecommunication) has made available two frequency bands in the GSM system : (1) 890 MHz for the mobile to base station (up link), and (2) 985 MHz to 960 MHz for the base station to mobile (down link).These 25 MHz bands are divided into 124 pairs of carriers spaced by 200 MHz. Each of the carriers is divided into 8 TDMA time slots of 0.577 m sec length, such that the frame length is 4.615 m sec. the recurrence of each time slot makes up one physical channel, such that each carrier can support eight physical channels, both in uplink down link directions.

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