Date of Submission
Question One: Muslim Americans Culture
The word “Muslim culture” has been used widely to describe the several diverse Muslim cultural groups which comprise of the Asian Muslims, the Middle Eastern, the European, the African, and the American Muslims. These groups of cultures have their customs and traditions which are followed for the good of their Muslim practices. However, some customs and traditions can be perceived to be more motivating through the various cultures rather than religion. These different points of expression on the same faith typically make the question of protocol to be a complicated issue even though all Muslims accept some actions. For instance, they agree and believe in the existence of Oneness of God, the Holy Books, and the entire prophets from Adam to Muhammad without any inconsistency. The group perceives that the sole creator of all humankind is God referred to as ‘Allah’ in Arabic language and that the God of all Abrahamic churches is the similar God. The group also perceives that Islam is the continuation and culmination of Judaism and Christianity (Sirin & Katsiaficas, 2011).
In the recent times, America has become the home of many Muslim populations in the entire universe, together with people of almost every ethnicity, country and school of thought. The study of American Muslims is an exciting topic to study due to its different perception of the culture and their educative nature of the literature. Through studying the Muslim community, one will be able to learn some of their doctrines including the duties of the imam or the prayer leader and how they carry out various activities including their prayer sessions and taboos associated with the culture. Close to one-third of the whole community is covered by the African-American while one third is of the South Asia culture, a quartet comprising of the Arab while the rest are from all over the globe. According to Sirin, S. R., & Katsiaficas, D. (2011), the American Muslims engage in the ordinary occupations practiced by other people such as accountants, media personalities, athletes, doctors, taxi drivers and even lawyers.
The Muslim communities talk about politeness and respect for elders who are some of the exciting topics of study under their culture and try to know more about them. The culture is very concerned with the young generation adopting some respect for the elders. Some of the activities that might look okay for the young adults to participate in are perceived to be rude and uncalled for in the presence of elders; for instance, a person who points at a senior with the thumb fingers is offensive and disrespectful. There is a given level of etiquette that is typically expected within the society; such as, mentioning the elders using their first name or their last name without including the prefix of Mr., Mrs., or Miss since they perceived to be rude. Other ways of showing respect to the elders in the society are through opening doors for them, not interrupting, and giving out one’s seat for them.
The culture is individualistic since they believe that man was created and appointed to be vicegerent on earth by God and all have been bestowed upon him in trust (Amanah); therefore, he has to fulfill his duties through being conscious of the assurance given. From the Islamic point of view, there exist three important concepts that should be followed for a person and his or her development; tadib, tarbiya and taalim which relates to a person’s development (Sirin & Katsiaficas, 2011). Therefore, the society embraces individualism and tends to promote the freedom that is focused towards the betterment of the culture and peace of the community. A majority of the individualistic cultures in America are typically self-centered and strives strictly to achieve their objectives. It is on the basis that every individual is entitled to moral status and various rights that are either regarded to be the divine origin or inherent in the human nature. Moreover, in the individualistic culture, every person lives, perceives, views think, and acts in and through his or her own body.
In the culture, it is perceived that every person’s life belongs to him and bears an absolute freedom to live it in the manner best to him or her, to operate on his notions, to store and utilize any product of his effort, and to practice the values of his choosing. This the basis that the American Muslim initiators resolved to and decided to establish the efficient time to draft the declaration and the law and created a society in which an individual has the right to live and get happiness in places which are recognized and protected from enemies. It is also significant to notice that individualism from the Islamic point of view consists of salient traits that consider self-building as accountability before Allah (God). In the process of embracing responsibility within the culture, the Islamic community encourages education programs that aid in introducing given elements that strengthen Muslim personality at the early stages of a person’s life. This can be displayed by creating a link with Allah constantly (Sirin & Katsiaficas, 2011).
Question Two: Hispanic Americans Culture
Hispanic Americans are also referred to as Spanish America and consist of Spanish-speaking nations in the United States of America. There are four key groups of the Hispanic community that exists in the United States recently, and they include the Mexican Americans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans and some part of the smaller Spanish speaking communities from central and South America. The Hispanic community in America is growing at a high rate and is likely to overtake the black population in few decades; it might be contributed by the considerable influence of immigration that began in the 1970s or the nature of having prominent families. The Mexican American have stayed in the United States for long with a majority concentrated in the Southwest and live in the so-called barrios which are Spanish-speaking surroundings (Durà-Vilà & Hodes, 2012). It is rated that 20 percent of these people live a poverty life while a majority work in menial jobs.
On the other hand, the Puerto Ricans have been living in America since the 1900s when Puerto Rico became a sole governing commonwealth of the United States. Many of the groups have decided to settle in New York where close to half of the entire populations still live below the poverty line (Durà-Vilà & Hodes, 2012). Puerto Rico is not only considered to be a full state within America; but also a commonwealth that is self-ruled and that maintains a voluntary relationship with the more prominent nation. Consequently, Cubans are another group of immigrants that settled in the state of Florida when Fidel Castro took over power from the early 1960s, and a majority of them came from professional and white-collar backgrounds.
As observed by Durà-Vilà, G., & Hodes, M. (2012), some of the characteristics of Hispanic Americans are that they originated from different economic, social, and geographical background which makes them unique based on their family heritage and national origin. Some cultural similarities are viewed to bring these groups of people together. On the language were spoken, Hispanic Americans speaking Spanish which represents close to 6 percent of the whole American population. In the year 2012, the number of Spanish speakers increased to 36 million which represent a 12 percent of the entire United States population. Many Hispanic societies teach their kids Spanish as a technique of passing down their culture and their teachings. These group of people embraces religion since it plays a significant role in the literature that represents a profoundly Christian environment and many of them being identified as Catholic and Protestants. The group is also known for a famous cuisine that has influenced the eating habits of many Americans with their cuisine comprising of corn-based food such as tamales, tortillas, and various salsas.
On the issue of whether the culture is collectivistic or individualistic, the group is considered to be a collectivistic society that focuses on their families or the team over an individual’s ambition. In Hispanic American community, people’s rights and freedoms are derived from mutual respects and understanding that all citizens bears responsibility and duty to perform given responsibilities within the society (Durà-Vilà & Hodes, 2012). The duties are listed in a given hierarchy centered on a familial system. Moreover, the father who is the head of the family is charged with the responsibility of providing financial and disciplinary actions within the family. The mother should strictly follow the views and commands of her husband and to all the people who fall on the husband’s side of the family. In the culture, names and reputation are crucial elements that should be protected which have been practiced in the Hispanic Americans culture.
Question Three: Similarities and differences between the two cultures
When seeking the differences and similarities that exist between the Hispanic and Muslim Americans; an individual should evaluate time orientation, communication, physical and mental health status, group relationships, and perceptions and measure of intelligence. When it comes to the time orientation, the Hispanic community pays much attention to time and respect its aspects; however, they do not view it to be important as seen in the Muslim American society (Koenig, 2015). In cases where any member of the family has problems which are likely to interfere with the day’s plans, then family issues are regarded as a priority and should come first. The Hispanic communities are ordinarily flexible when it comes to timing with an adequate preference given to the family, friends, and associates. According to Koenig, M. (2015), the community prioritizes the present happenings rather than the past and future events and can participate in many activities at the same time. The society is known to have a reputation for being what is called Latin time which is out of concern for the Muslim Americans group.
On communication, the two societies have a similarity such as a handshaking, trusting an individual before exposing his or her hand. However, there are differences witnessed as the Hispanic communities are too reluctant to freely reveal their issues which have the personal advantage to them. Moreover, they have nature not be quick in talking about family issues as the case in the Islamic society. The group also tends to be less confrontation plus they first build trust, support, warmth, and a safer mode before engaging in challenging situations. The Hispanic group also embraces a nonverbal style of communication where they are likely to touch a person while communicating with them. They stand as close as possible to the people with whom they are conversing with and are quick in introducing themselves and on many occasions provide a peck. Thus, non-verbal is viewed to be essential in the community as part of their communication nature and in creating strict interpersonal correlations.
When it comes to the significance of the Hispanic physical or the mental status of a person, there are typically grave concerns about what the Muslim American would view as health problems. As observed by Samovar et al., (2015), a qualitative process was conducted to evaluate the perceptions of the community about health issues. They responded noticing that not bearing any ailments which can be either mental or physical can still be viewed to be good health. It is also considered that experimenting sexual activity is something natural and part of the life. Even though these issues are a concern for the Muslim community, the problems are incredibly prevalent in the Hispanic society.
Intelligence has been embraced by the two groups and considered to be important in the human life; however, what might be viewed to be more intelligent in one culture may be less knowledgeable about another culture. The Muslim religion is considered to have smart people who can reason out and complete a task (Koenig, 2015). There still exist similarities as well as differences in the capacity of intelligence between the two cultures. The Hispanic kids face a tough task as they are perceived to be having the same intellectual ability as that of the Muslim community. Hence, the Latino notions of the difficulties in education are essential in the belief that they cannot challenge the Muslim and other students can deter them from making the required efforts to overcome these challenges.
Question Four: Theory guiding the two cultures
A sociological philosophy is one of the concepts that have been used in the investigation of various principles of the humanity. For example, the sociological notion which is an agreement of thoughts that offers a clarification for social culture. Although, policies are very choosy in relationships of their urgencies and standpoints and the information they describe as essential. As an outcome, they deliver a precise and incomplete opinion of authenticity which makes the sociological ideas to be clustered and composed to allow different norms (Ahn, 2011). However, the most vital of these is the division amongst the operational and collective achievement systems. On the same note, operational or functional insights have a habit of investigating the manner in which the general public as an entire fits composed.
For instance, under basic model opinions the people as a scheme of affairs that generates the assembly of the social order in which people animate in. Although, it is the same arrangement that helps in shaping exists and charismas in which the benefit of cooperative associations are prepared real to lie beneath the presence of the open individual of western uniqueness. Moreover, the structuralism also concentrates on the specific agreed of fundamental rules that spread over in any single culture (Ahn, 2011). Regardless of the variances, both the functionalism and socialism do use a classical on how the humanity as whole works. For example, many functionalists tend to improper their ideal of civilization about the conjecture of simple requirements and clarify how different portions of the people help to encounter those essentials. On the other hand, Marxists view the social order as a hidden opportunity over the commercial immoral or arrangement, with a foundation beyond it. Moreover, they also see the civilization as shared into community sessions which can be in the battle with each other.
However, one of the critical variances concerning functionalist and socialist views is the way they tend to describe the communal organization. For example, the functionalists strain about the degree at which the different features of the public arrangement apt to one another amicably. On the other hand, Marxists also pressure about the nonexistence of right amongst the various portions, mostly on societal programs which highlight about the possibility for collective battle. Although on the same, note not all sociological sides improper their investigation upon a scrutiny of the organization of culture as an entire (Ahn, 2011). Moreover, it is well sighted that human performance should be resolute by civilization, where the general public is being viewed as a product of moral action. Furthermore, they pressure the importance of hominid deeds, by contradicting that it is mostly dogged by the configuration of the culture. Therefore, all these tactics are recognized as societal deed philosophy, critical sociology or small sociology.
According to Max Weber who was the first sociologist, he supported the establishment of universal achievement attitude. For instance, representative integrationists attempt to expound social performance and mortal humanity by investigative the habits in which people deduce the achievement of others by evolving a self-concept of self-image and the act regarding implications. Additionally, ethno methodology in one way or the other performs the duty of moving to a higher height from a mechanical methodology through contradicting the presence of a public assembly as such (Ahn, 2011). Therefore, the prime reason for doing this is because of the public domain which comprises of descriptions and classifications of the associates of the general public. However, one of the most significant occupations of the sociologist in their field is to provide analysis, account and thoughtful which are broad to genuineness.
Question Five: Influences of Muslim and Hispanic Cultures
According to the sociological model, numerous effects do take place between the philosophy and character growth in human beings through Muslim American and Hispanic American beliefs. For instance, in both nations they comprise of the values which entails a state to all of the principles, duties, thoughts, actions, and conducts of a specific humanity that is approved by age group. Therefore, policies are then conveyed to people through different linguistic as well as over exhibition of comportment, and it expresses which personalities and manners to be well-thought-out imperative, required, or unwanted. Although inside values, there are standards and social outlooks whereby the customs can be used to order which personal qualities are to be reflected central. However, these conditions may differ from one value to the other founded on divergent in principles, wants and opinions: where a useful feature in one ethos may be seen as harmful while in the other, the end is entirely not the same in terminologies about behavior through humanities (Deci, 2012).
Bearing in mind that social inspiration on nature is one of the most vital ordeals because the western philosophies and concepts are not inherently appropriate to an additional way of life. For example, there is countless contract of suggestion that the power of character qualities differs through beliefs which is very accurate when associating nonconformist ethos such as European, North American and Australian principles and communists when observing at nations like Asian, African and South American (Deci, 2012). Although persons who animate in conformist countries tend to have faith liberation, struggle and own realization which is very significant though very diverse to folks who quick in communist arts that show a value of public accord, consideration and separate requirements. However, these morals impact the nature inversely but in essence means; for instance, in 2006 it was found by Yang that individuals in loner ethos shown extra individually-adaption to behavior characters, whereas over-all community in socialist principles exposed an additional informally-leaning disposition personalities.
Traditional encouragement on mortal growth also has played a very vital role in shaping up an individual’s life. For instance, in Muslim American and Hispanic American ethos, human beings do grow up in precise somatic, communal, social, financial and past conditions separately, all of which will affect their expansion in one way or the other. Therefore, we truly know that a principle impacts how kids grow; where from corner to corner diverse philosophies, offspring advance in entirely different means. Furthermore, every kid is disadvantaged in connection with their mothers who in one way may face challenges in future juvenile because of broken affection links (Sameroff, 2010). On the other hand, advancement of progression contains a procedure of wisdom and enhancement where youngsters can only acquire information when others are there to maintain them, like the maternities, educators, and brethren. Although, all this does not battle with Piaget’s phase concept but does spread it to clarify how some of the environmental practices that teenagers obtain to permit them to move from one point to a different one.
Finally, a national inspiration for uniqueness growth is raised to as a connection that is amongst the private and societal. For example, in both the Muslim American and Hispanic American, the folk who take up detailed characters in a different way from each other in both cultures and in chance use the prevailing circumstances where a person discovers himself or herself in and the parts that are shaped. Moreover, in a public course location where a collection of individuals are being viewed differently by the two ethos due to their characteristics as a result of the income that one get and mutual commercial attention, skills, and existences. On the other hand, there is also effort connected to personalities in cooperation principles which are being recognized generally and each being that one encounter will tend to relate themselves with others in relative to the kind of profession one is doing, the earnings and societal class (Sameroff, 2010). Although femininity and the collective variances that are between males and females do demonstrate original which are seen because masculinity is an essential height of uniqueness which includes being peaceful and conformist.
Question Six: Cultural Influences
In every culture, the method of expressing oneself differs due to the basis that human beings are unique in their ways; however, some similarities are likely to exist with varied aspects of what people may tend to express. Based on the sociological theory, these differences in emotional nature can be evaluated as the result of emotion regulation since various emotions that fit a given culture tends to be frequent and intense. The Muslim Americans have been discovered to have higher degrees of expressed sentiments that the Hispanic families (Jamal & Shukor, 2014). These high emotions are valued more than the deep feelings in the Muslim American culture. The Hispanic community tends to gain emotional connection through depending on one another in ways such as the use of non-verbal communication cues. These cues are likely to include hand and body movement, facial expression, physical touch, voice pitch, emotional indications like teary eyes, and even smell.
On the moral development, the social norms, beliefs, language and more so of a society define a particular cultural group. Therefore, the influence that a culture has is crystal-clear in the encouraging of both the negative and positive effects of the kid’s behavior and moral development. In the Muslim community, parents as of the other groups are concerned with the moral characters of their kids and want the best outcome for their future. Muslim American culture has instilled fear in several parents in that, parents who are not impressed with the public schools for their kids have resolved to enroll their kids in Islamic classes as a method of safeguarding their morality. Many parents believe that through secular education, their kid’s well-being, moral status, and spiritual development may be in danger (Jamal & Shukor, 2014). All these concerns are based on the fact that Muslim American community protects their kids from isolating their Islamic identity. On the other hand, the Hispanic society the elderly members of the family have continued to insist that the teenage members of the community should be respectful, get to know the significance of honor, and the meaning of ethical behavior.
Gender differences are significant across various cultures in shaping their individual’s experience and due to the traditional and religious status of the Hispanic culture; the gender disparity usually is distinctly defined. The society also encourages machismo attitude which separates gender roles thus becoming a social behavior. The mothers typically promote this behavior in their kids; therefore, men and women may not know that their attitudes are machista (Jasperse, Ward, & Jose, 2012). The view has affected the manner in which both the males and females live where many men still perceive that women should be housewives while the men provide for the family.
On the other hand, the Muslim American culture has continued to discuss gender issues and precisely on the rights of the women. In this culture, women are always viewed to be inferior beings that are desperately in constant need of the Muslim patriarchal culture that deters their progress. Segregation of the two sexes which is a practice in the Muslim community has been viewed as a proof of the suppression of the Muslim women. As noted, the Islamic society draws a clear distinction between the legitimate and the illegitimate human relationship with societal regulations put in place to aid Muslims in strict adherence to this framework. Segregation, therefore, was created with the intention of reducing the probability of illicit relationships existing. Moreover, the physical contact of the opposite sex is highly discouraged. A man is viewed as the head of the family with the economic responsibilities also being bestowed upon him as the head of the family irrespective of whether the wife is employed or not.
On aggression, the youth violence has become a significant public health issue where physical and violent aggression has led to intentional dangers, suicide and even homicide that are currently the leading causes of deaths among the teenagers. Moreover, aggressive characters are typically associated with the use of drugs, careless driving, unprotected sex, and mental problems. The Hispanic Americans have been linked with a high degree of violence and rated as the fastest developing ethnic group in the United States (Jasperse, Ward, & Jose, 2012). Through the lack of information on aggressive characters among the Hispanics in the more significant criminological literature, even though, various studies have limited the discovery of aggression among the Hispanic youths. Studying the risks and protective issues associated with racial and cultural differences in physical assault and violence bears significant implications to the level in which general or ethnic theories of criminology are warranted.
The Muslim American faces aggression all over the United States where Muslim students have been assaulted by their peers, teachers and even coaches. Close to half of Muslims experiences bullying in their various schools. Moreover, they are having been referred to as terrorists where they have their hijab pulled down and multiple acts of bullying which have affected the degree of their performance. These are acts of aggression that have been acted upon the Muslim American cultural community. The recent law is that of the killing of New York imam and his assistant heightened Muslim American fears of the constant rise of violence against the 4 million steady communities.
Question Seven: Biases on Cultural Analysis
Some biases are likely to be experienced when conducting a research more so the experimental error and failure to consider all the available variables while another prejudice erupts when a researcher picks on specific subjects whose results can be pre-determined. Cultural biases occur with typical beliefs associated with various cultures. Stereotyping is one bias that influenced the study of Muslim American set up due to the reason that the community has been associated with several anti-Muslim rhetoric’s and constant terrorism (Van de Vijver & Leung, 2011). As a result, it leads to the development of Islam phobia which creates fear, hatred, and discrimination towards the Muslim community.
This has previously been shown through personal biases, hate crimes, research, education, and politics. The perception withdrawn from the research that the Muslim community is typically associated with violence and terrorism might influence the study since it viewed not be the right nature. This is due to the many studies that have been carried out on this issue with a majority of the Muslim society overwhelmingly expressing a negative view of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Also, biases have been witnessed in the act of conducting a study on the Hispanic American culture that has all at the time showed the importance of family togetherness (Van de Vijver & Leung, 2011). Personally, the values and practices of the culture are attributes to the human growth, and the kind of societal, organizational setup brings a friendly society. The training of the youths, the respect is shown to the seniors, the protection given to the native language is a sign of a stable and friendly community.
In conclusion, the Muslim American and Hispanic American communities have some of the overwhelming characteristics which may include the values, and customs and traditions. Their want for a better life for their young ones is excellent. The two societies have made tremendous sacrifices to migrate to the United States with an effort of providing basic wants to their kids with enhanced economic, educational and social life.
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