Expanded Outline Example Essay

English 1150 – Formal Outline Example – ATV Usage

I. Introduction

a. Strategy: Narrative

i. Offer recount of personal experience with protestors and family

ii. Offer (informal research) news story about ATV users helping with the


iii. All of the above functions as refutation

b. Objective a dvanced thesis

i. Usage of all -terrain vehicles should be limited on public lands in

Alberta because they cause unnatural erosion , contribute to forest

fires , and create excessive noise .

II. Subtopic 1 – Un natural erosion

a. Body paragraph 1 – Erosion and waterways

i. Topic sentence – erosion and rainwater negatively affects waterways

1. Formal Research: (Simpson, 2016) – Alberta Study on rock/mud


a. Page 4 offers s pecifics about water displacement due to

quad trails and the statistical number of mud and rock

slides being caused.

2. Formal Research: (Dell, 2015) – Similar B.C. study , offering

specific data about water displacement

a. This study looks at new ponds and streams bei ng

formed by quad trails.

b. Page 2 offers specific measurements of water levels of

old waterways and levels of newly created waterways.

3. Formal Research: (Marlow, 2017) – Montana study that

supports the above research.

a. This study examines mostly streambeds and the

direction of streams.

b. Page 8 offers detailed data about the redirection of

water via quad trails.

ii. Concluding statement – Examining data collected in Alberta, BC and

Montana, it is evident that quads cause unnatural erosion that

negatively affects natural waterways.

III. Subtopic 2 – Forest fires

a. Body Paragraph 2 – Forest fires caused by ATVs

i. Topic sentence, including transition – ATVs cause forest fires

1. Formal Research: (Da wson, 2015) – Examination of tail pipe and

engine leak fires

a. Pages 1 -3 offer a detailed analysis of temperature of

ATV exhaust systems and leaking liquids, along with

combustion temperatures of vegetation.

b. Pages 4-6 offer a statistical analysis of a number of fires

throughout Western Canada. There are specific

numbers relating to fires outside and i nside of known

ATV areas.

2. Formal Research: (Banyon, 2016) – Similar study to above

a. This study cites data from the Alberta Government,

which supports the findings from Dawson ’s study .

b. Page 4 has a good chart with specific data about

Western Canada.

ii. Concluding statement – Evidence from both the academic community

and the government supports that ATVs are a significant fire risk.

IV. Subtopic 3 – noise

a. Body paragraph 3 – Noise and wildlife – bears

i. To pic sentence, including transition – ATVs cause excessive noise,

which affects bear habitat

1. Formal Research: (Kim, 2013) – Alberta/ BC study examining

bear territory

a. Page 4 offers statistical information about bear territory

in the region and how areas congested with ATVs causes

bears to cross into other territories, which involves

fighting and deaths

2. Formal Research: (Brady, 2015) – Alaskan study about grizzly

activity due to human encroachment.

a. Page 12 has two par agraphs specifically about ATVs and

back -country recreation. The second paragraph has

statistics about grizzly migration issues.

ii. Concluding statement – Data from both Western Canada and Alaska

supports that ATVs negatively affect bear migration, o ften to the point

of death.

b. Body paragraph 4 – Noise and humans

i. Topic sentence, including transition – ATVs disturb local residents

1. Formal Research (Zin, 2016) – Alberta study about public


a. Page 13 offers statistical data about those who use

public lands for other recreational purposes. Data shows

they find ATV noise offensive.

2. Formal Research (Nagy, 2013) – BC study about ATVs around

small communities

a. Page 2 offers survey data about those who l ive in

several small communities. There is a chart of data that

concludes a majority would rather not hear ATVs

b. Page 3 offers decibel levels and a comparison to other

sounds that might be as loud. There is a significant

number of residents t hat have to endure high volumes

of noise.

3. Formal Research ( Anders, 2015) – Study that looks at

government data on public land use

a. This summative study offers specific statistical data

about complaints from the public about the noise of


ii. Concluding statem ent – Many of those who do not participate in ATV

use are negatively affected due to the high level of noise created.

V. Conclusion

a. Revisit strategy used in introduction to maintain interest

i. Revisit the personal experience, but with a new outlook.

ii. Revisit the (informal research) news article but with a slight critical


b. Revisit subtopics

i. Offer a sentence or two summarizing the research supporting

problematic erosion.

ii. Offer a sentence or two summarizing the research supporting forest


iii. Offer a sentence or two summarizing the research supporting

excessive noise.

c. Conclude the essay

i. Paraphrase my simple thesis (overall argument)

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