Enhance economic and environmental benefits by cp assessment in paint industryThe global paints & coatings market size was estimated at 43.40 million tons in 2016 and is expected to grow significantly over the forecast period owing to its growing utilization in various end-use industries such as automotive, marine, construction and industrial to be the major ones.The global market in the past few years has grown moderately despite of various uncertainties such as the economic slowdown of major economies, negative & positive influence of the low crude oil price, fluctuations in value of U.
S. dollars, the high growth rate of the U.S. automotive and construction industry, tenuousness of the recovery of various European nations and developments in regulatory norms globally and economic benefits Kermeli, Katerina & Worrell, Ernst & Masanet, Eric. (2011). Identified that by increasing energy efficiency, companies can reduce costs and increase predictable earnings inThe face of ongoing energy price volatility. Considering energy price volatility and recent sharpIncreases in natural gas prices across the nation, energy efficiency improvements are needed Today more than ever.
Many companies have already accepted the challenge to improve theirEnergy efficiency in the face of high energy costs and have begun to reap the rewards of energyEfficiency investments. In addition, companies are turning to energy-efficient processes andTechnologies to reduce their criteria pollutant and carbon emissions, to meet corporateEnvironmental goals.This Energy Guide has summarized many energy-efficient technologies and practices that areProven, cost-effective, and available for implementation today. These opportunities are applicable at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Preliminary estimates of savings in energy and energy-related costs have been provided for many of the measures, based on case study data from real-world industrial applications. Typical investment payback periods and references to further information have been provided, where available.Many measures have relatively short payback periods and are therefore attractive economic investments on their own. The degree to which these measures are implemented will vary among plants and end uses, but continuous evaluation of your facility’s energy profile will help to identify further cost savings over time. For all of the energy efficiency measures presented in this guide, research their economics and applicability to your facility’s own unique production practices to assess the feasibility and potential benefits of each measure’s implementation. Energy efficiency, which includes sound plant-wide energy management practices combined with energy-efficient technologies, offers additional benefits, such as product quality improvement, increased production, and increased process efficiency”all of which can lead to productivity gains. As a component of a company’s overall environmental strategy, energy efficiency improvements often lead to reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other important air pollutants. Investments in energy efficiency are a sound and key business strategy in today’s manufacturing environment. This Energy Guide provides an overview of available measures for energy efficiency in the concrete industry. Specific energy consumption can vary widely among different plants, and depends on the type of product manufactured, climate conditions, and condition of equipment. This Energy Guide is concerned with the most important systems, equipment, processes and practices that account for the bulk of energy consumption in the concrete industry. Brundage, Michael & Arinez, Jorge & Chang, Qing & Xiao, Guoxian. (2015). Point out thatAreturn on investment strategy is developed to give plant managers the quantitative tools to selectthe machine which, when replaced, will lead to the largest return on investment. Over the longterm, this will lead to the largest decrease in energy costs. To increase profits on a daily basis, acontrol methodology is developed that uses energy opportunity windows to insert downtimeevents that have minimal production impact, but reduce the overall energy consumption. Asimulation case study is performed to test the control methodology and the return on investmentstrategy to show the effect of both on the profit of the manufacturing facility.Cost benifitsValue accounting is directed at promoting cost efficiency and effectiveness. Cost refers to consideration given up in exchange for a benefit while profit is revenue less cost incurred. Profit may be improved either by increasing the sales value/quantity or reducing the cost or both (Ofurum & Egbe, 2014; Okorafor, 2012). However, in most cases, sales revenue depends on market forces which are beyond the control of managers. Real increase in cost has to be passed on to customers because of fall in demand and the need to reduce price to boost sales. A portion of the costs is borne by the manufacturer as well as well. Accordingly, it is not easy to improve profit by increasing the sales value. Cost reduction remains the conventional alternative for improving the profitability of a product. Generally, experts regard problems involved in cost control in industries as quite complex and becoming more complicated by the day (Okorafor, 2012; Bigsten & Soderbom, 2006; Emaobong, 2003)). This complexity is also due to international competition, fast changing systems and paradigm shift in favour of information and communication. They also argue that traditional budgeting mechanisms have become more mechanical while trend-based decisions are highly emphasized at the top. The techniques applied in cost control include budgetary control and standard costing. By setting expected standard or predetermined cost and comparing actual cost with it, management is able to know when the limit is being exceeded, so that steps can be taken to check excesses. If this is done regularly during a budget period, management ensures that the cost is not exceeded (Ofurum & Egbe, 2014; Okorafor, 2012; Idornigie, 2003). If the actual cost differ from planned cost by a significant amount, cost control becomes very necessary. While basic techniques assist to ensure that cost does not escalate, they may not fully result in the reduction of cost. The more effective cost reduction programs relate to those which embrace all aspects of industrial operations, systems and products. These programs usually have full top management support. Cost reduction may simply achieved be by the application of common sense but there are several formal techniques which have been found to be more effective in improving product, reducing waste, streaming systems and thereby reducing cost. Cost reduction is operationally differentiated from cost control, in the sense that the former is the systematic approach to achieving real reduction in the unit cost of producing goods or services without sacrificing quality (Idornigie, 2003). Examination of product range may show that some products are quite expensive while some are uneconomical because of their small quantities. It is often cost effective to produce a range of finished products from a common, relatively small pool of components. In general fewer varieties make for longer production runs, increase the scope for automation and is likely to reduce cost. The sales and marketing aspects of variety reduction must also be closely considered otherwise any production gains may be nullified (Idornigie, 2003; Ojowu, 2003). There are many reasons that necessitate the adoption of structured approach in ensuring logical cost reduction in industrial management. They have to do with key factors within the industry and those that are stimulated by the market for the product or service. For issues within the industry, value accounting is conducted to enhance the design process and control systems for review of product performance once it is at the production stage. Some of the problems associated with a lack of proper design review systems have to do with the fact that the designer may not be aware of best way to develop an optimal design. The designer may also be unaware of the cost implications of one design over another due to insufficient information or poor understanding of new materials and technologies relating to the product (Alos, 2000; Okorafor, 2012). The review process, therefore, allows the opportunity to incorporate these new sources of cost reduction. The process also offers vital information feedback to the designer regarding the performance of the design in production. The designer may have produced a drawing that was intended for technology that has been replaced since the product went into full production. The value accounting process allows these changes to be incorporated formally. Traditional thinking and customary practice may have led the designer to believe that a particular solution was the best without questioning the logic. This relates to the belief that a traditional and proven solution will always be adequate for a client, so the firm offers products that do not effectively provide the value sought by the client. Value accounting ensures critical review which forces the designer and other professional managers to assess what the customer wants and the solutions being provided by the company. The designer, in times of pressure may create designs for immediate production and sale, by cutting corners and paying insufficient attention to the design itself. Therefore insufficient or inadequate analysis may have been undertaken during the planning of the product characteristics and the relative cost of different designs. Therefore the pressure is on the designer to sell a physical product and collapse the time from the drawing board to the selling point. This may force designers to compromise the quality of the design in order to simply meet the commercial pressure to release products to the market (Anyanwu, 2000; Agundu & Ohaka, 2010; Okorafor, 2012).Cp assessmentFresner, Johannes. (2010). Identified that Cleaner Production can be applied to the processes used in any industry, to products themselves and to various services provided in society.For production processes, Cleaner Production is the result of one or a combination of thefollowing: conserving raw materials, water and energy, eliminating toxic and dangerous rawmaterials, and reducing all emissions and wastes at the source.For products, Cleaner Production strategy focuses on reducing the environmental, health andsafety impacts of the product over its entire life cycle from raw materials extraction to theultimate disposal of the product.For services, Cleaner Production reduces the environmental impacts of the service provided overits entire life cycle: from designing the system, its use, to the entire uptake of resources requiredto deliver the specific service.CLEANER PRODUCTION AND INNOVATION THEORY. SOCIAL EXPERIMENTS AS A NEW MODEL TO ENGAGE IN CLEANER PRODUCTION Hans DIELEMAN -2007The methodology used in cleaner production (CP) projects is centered on the identification and implementation of so-called cleaner production options or opportunities. The definition of cleaner production as used by UNEP reflects the essence of the methodology. The essence of the methodology is first of all to identify sources of the production of wastes and emissions inside the production process. Once such sources are identified the next step is to think about all possible ways to eliminate or reduce those sources. Once a variety of potential options is generated the methodology prescribes to engage in feasibility studies to assess the economic and environmental consequences of the options. Finally those options that prove to be feasible from an economic and a financial point of view are put forward for implementation. These subsequent steps can be characterized as (1) a planning and organization phase, (2) an assessment phase to identify wastes and emissions and options for change, (3) a feasibility analysis phase and (4) an implementation and continuation phase (Fig. 1) Water consumptionRajini, Damitha & Samarakoon, Samarakoon Bathvadana Ralalage. (2016) analyzed that factors influence in water consumption ia a hotel. This study therefore, aims at reviewing the existing literature and investigating the factors influencing water consumption in hotel facilities. The paper structure begins with a literature review on global water crisis and water consumption in hotel facilities. The paper then reviews major influential factors on water consumption in hotels and finally presents the discussion and conclusions of the study. Building and Building Services Related FactorsOperational FactorsOccupants Related FactorsTotal hotel floor area/size of the hotel Age of the building and building services Multiplicity of water-using appliances Usage of efficient water fittings Operational Factors Hotel running activities Class of the hotel Presence and characteristics of water intensive facilities/services Efficiency and configuration of hotel facilities and services Maintenance activities Number of guests/ occupancy rate Number of employees In-house/ onsite laundry load Number of food covers made Adoption and implementation of environmental and water management programmes Occupants Related Factors Practices of occupants Habits Guests’ needs Personal preferences Personal concerns on comfort and convenience Personal health concerns and cleanliness Ethnicity and religion Economy Attitudes Environmental concerns of occupants Situational and psychological circumstances Culture Individual responses to social and institutional norms Awareness on water consumption Education level With the growing environmental degradation, sustainable development, including thedevelopment of a more sustainable built environment, has become a vital priority today. Anumber of factors indicate that the hotel industry has an important responsibility in this process(Bohdanowicz, 2005). Within the hotel sector, the areas of concern for the environment includerecycling of waste, waste management, clean air, energy and water conservation, environmentalhealth, maintenance of permits such as building permits and compliance with legislation,purchasing policy and environmental education (Manesh, 2006).It should focus on environmental requirements in order to minimize exploitation of natural resources, energy, water, material, production processes improvements and also those environmental practices which reduce effects on environment and minimizes production of pollutants and waste (Placet et al., 2005; Potts, 2010). The Cleaner Production (CP) technology means using and developing new techniques, methods, energy sources and materials which reduce production waste and within the life cycle of the product (Dunn and Bush, 2001; Tseng et al., 2009; Yonga et al., 2016). The CP methodologies have been developed by the Industrial Development Organization and also Environment Programmes of the United Nations, hence organizations systematically can minimize their emissions and waste (Kliopova and Staniskis, 2006; Hicks and Dietmar, 2007; Lukena et al., 2016).). In context of an organization, the related environmental practices to processes and product development, help to sustainable development, offering organizations more economic stability and environmental sustainability. Thus, companies are able to reduce environmental effects through utilizing the environmental management technologies, including: Effluent Treatment Plant (WWTP), Waste Management System (SGR), Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Environmental Management System (EMS) ISO 14001, Cleaner Production (CP), Industrial Symbiosis (IS), Industrial Ecology (IE), recycling, etc. (Anton et al., 2004; Chertow, 2007; Darnall et al., 2008).The focus of energy conservation is to save energy and reduce pollutant emissions by improving production equipment and conditions. While there are many methods of achieving energy conservation, the Datang Changshan Thermal Power Plant could adopt the following specific methods: (i) reduce coal consumption; (ii) reduce water consumption and improve the rate of water reuse; (iii) improve wastewater treatment measures; and (iv) utilize fly ash in classifications and use slag waste. (2) Improving pollution control technology By improving pollution control technology, the Datang Changshan Thermal Power Plant should adopt CP technology to reach the following goals: (i) the reform of combustion technology; (ii) the development of desulfurization and denitration technology; and (iii) the development of composite dust removal technology.