editted by frishta set project Essay

SET ID: 162030

Concept of QR Codes and Usages in Afghanistan’s Markets

Prepared by

Frishta Mirzad (18MCS0104)

Khatera Mastanzada (18MCS0105)

[email protected],

[email protected]


Muhammad Rukunuddin GHALIB

ID: 11613

Feb, 201


Quick Response (QR) codes are used to store small extent of data. They are used in all life fields. Especially with immense spread of smart phones. These smart phones are used as QR code scanners. Many benefits of QR make them very popular, there are many security issues and dignity which are associated with them.

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Running malicious code, thievery users’ sensitive information and offending their privacy and identity theft are some typical security dignity that a user might be subject to in the background while he/ she is just reading the QR code in the foreground. In this paper we discussed how to secure QR codes and prevent these security issues.

The aim of this project is to find out and declare QR codes Concept in details and to know how the traders use QR in their Bossiness and how QR help them for their works in general in Afghanistan.

Furthermore, in below we will discuss about History, uses, Standards, Security, Risks advantages and Disadvantages by the end.


Based on interest and knowledge, we picked up project to on QR Codes. We believe Market, organization and operation is well-nigh impossible without QR codes now a day. Initially, the background and motivation for this research work are presented. Besides, the objectives and research questions are discussed. The purpose of this research is to know Trader6s’ views on QR Usages and find out how we can increase Usages and security aspects of QR codes that are they safe and can they be fake? According to QR Codes concept and Information technology usage I will have prepared this research in QR codes have become common in consumer advertising. Typically, a smartphone is used as a QR code scanner, displaying the code and converting it to some useful form (such as a standard URL for a website, thereby obviating the need for a user to type it into a web browser). QR code has become a focus of advertising strategy, since it provides a way to access a brand’s website more quickly than by manually entering a URL. Beyond mere convenience to the consumer, the importance of this capability is that it increases the conversion (the chance that contact with the advertisement will convert to a sale), by coaxing interested prospects further down the conversion with little delay or effort, bringing the viewer to the advertiser’s website immediately, where a longer and more targeted sales pitch may lose the viewer’s interest. In case the main purpose for choosing such a theme is to determine, analysis current situation, necessary and find the result for concept for Quick Response codes.


The first objective of this project work is to study the concept of QR Code in details, Furthermore, the characteristics of QR Code are introduced, in addition, the analysis involves the symbol of QR Code, encoding and decoding procedures of QR Code. Moreover, regarding the QR Code generator and QR Code reader process implementation are demonstrated in this research. To achieve the objective, various resources are used to support this project.

The second objective of the project work aims to find out the benefits of using QR Code within companies and give reasonable recommendations on companies QR Code usage. In order to achieve this objective and the characteristics of QR Code. Moreover, examples are used to explore and explain the benefits of using QR Code.

Research Methodology and Design

This research work describes the fundamental of QR Code. This research involves the development history of QR Code. And explains the reason why QR Code becomes increasingly popular around the world. The research also explores the characteristics of QR Code.

In addition, the research explores the technologies of QR Code, such as the symbols of QR Code, which includes the version of QR Code and the size of its symbol. What is more, the research explores the functions of different squares which included QR Code. Additionally, the study focuses on encoding and decoding procedures of QR Code. Besides, the process of QR Code reading instructions and different kinds of readers are exhibited in this project. The outcome of the research is a set of recommendations generated for companies who are using QR Code. On the basis of the background and characteristics study of QR Code, QR Code technologies investigation and best practices of QR Code, the benefits of using QR Code within companies are studied in this project. Descriptive and exploratory research methods are used in the light of literature analysis. In this project, exploratory research is nature because QR Code is widespread used in the world and the function of QR Code is evolving rapidly at present. Apart from that, the concept of QR Code and the technologies of QR Code are often updating This is a preliminary phase and is absolutely essential in order to get a proper definition of the problem on hand. And increasing the analyst’s familiarity with the problem and clarifying the concepts.” concept of the QR Code, such as the background of QR Code, the definition of QR Code, types of QR Code. In addition, the technologies of QR Code describe in this project as well.

Diagram of QR code

Figure 1: Diagram QR code

QR Codes

Quick Response codes, commonly abbreviated as QR codes, started out as an Extension of the standard UPC barcode commonly used in retail and production. Unlike a 1-D barcode, a QR code is a 2-D matrix code that conveys information by the arrangement of its dark and light elements in columns and rows. The data in a QRcode can be accessed by taking a picture of the QR code and processing it with a QRcode reader. A barcode is a machine-readable optical label that contains information about the item to which it is attached. A QR code uses four standardized encoding modes (numeric, alphanumeric, byte/binary, and kanji) to efficiently store data; extensions may also be used. A QR Code is a two-dimensional barcode that means that it is scanned in two directions that is vertical as well as horizontal. QR Code enables stores more data than one dimensional barcode that illustrates the QR Code requires a more sophisticated reader. (Winter 2010, 18.) QR Code is defined by the ISO/IEC 18004 industrial standard. Nevertheless, QR Code is created and protected by the Japanese company Denso Wave in 1994. The main objective of QR Code development is encoding and reading easily for user. (Beker 2011, 131.) Denso Wave announced QR Code is released to the world in 1994 whereas Denso Wave retains the patent right of the QR Code. In accordance with the intent of developers, from the beginning of QR Code development, it could be used by as many people as possible. Under this circumstance, QR Code can grow into “public code” used by individuals and enterprises without cost and do not worry about the potential problem. QR is the abbreviation of quick response, the aim of the QR is expressing the development notion of QR code, which means emphasizing on the high-speed reading. (Denso Wave 2014.QR Code can be read by almost all mobile phones in Japan. South Korea is similar to Japan, Europe is catching up, and the United State is comparatively new to the game. Thanks to the iphone, Google?s Android operation system, and Windows Mobile phone, and Nokia?s phones all provide Internet access and camera, because they have the ability to scan and decode QR Code. (Winter 2010, 20.) The QR Code serves as a bridge which links the virtual and real world to digital domain is altering the method of marketing. Additionally, the QR Code also offers an opportunity to Interact with consumers and attract consumer with their brand. Previous research and investigation statistics brand needs an appropriate implementation of marketing campaign to create consumers? awareness via QR Code. There are two cases of QR Code implementations are applied to demonstrates two frameworks. One of the frameworks is the marketing strategies in accordance with the layer of product or service involvement. Another one is the marketing communication system used. The audience will clear the detail information of the company. (Weir 2010, 12-13.) The reason why use QR Code is that QR Code is new and unique. In addition, QR Code can immediately connect people to virtual environment of information and entertainment. In addition, convenient and fast features of QR Code also attract people to use it. Besides, QR Code can send information to the mobile phone instantly, whatever someone’s location. A QR code consists of black squares arranged in a square grid on a white background, which can be read by an imaging device such as a camera, and processed using Reed–Solomon error correction until the image can be appropriately interpreted. The required data are then extracted from patterns that are present in both horizontal and vertical components of the image.

Figure 2: Sample QR code


The QR code system was invented in 1994 by Denso Wave. Its purpose was to track vehicles during manufacture; it was designed to allow high-speed component scanning. QR codes now are used in a much broader context, including both commercial tracking applications and convenience-oriented applications aimed at mobile-phone users (termed mobile tagging). QR codes may be used to display text to the user, to add a vCard contact to the user’s device, to open a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), or to compose an e-mail or text message. Users can generate and print their own QR codes for others to scan and use by visiting one of several paid and free QR code generating sites or apps. The technology has since become one of the most used types of two-dimensional barcode. By the way in the Afghanistan according to the online research that I have done with asking from traders and QR users the first usage in market was about 2008 and

2009 which Alokozay Trades used QR codes in their company products in PEPSI and COLA in Afghanistan. Also Pamir LTD, Aghaez Company, Mustafa Jamil LTD, Gardizi LTD, and few more companies that are listed in appendix III were the only QR users in their company, products or services.

QR Code Standardization

Nonetheless as I searched for Quick response code’s Global Standards, there are several Standards that generally cover the encoding of data as quick response codes:

October, 1997:   Approved as AIM International (Automatic Identification Manufacturers International) standard (ISS – QR Code)March, 1998 : Approved as JEIDA (Japanese Electronic Industry Development Association) standard (JEIDA-55)January, 1999 : Approved as JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) standard (JIS X 0510)June, 2000 :  Approved as ISO international standard (ISO/IEC18004)November, 2004 : Micro QR Code is Approved as JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) standard (JIS X 0510) December 2011: Approved by GS1, an international standardization organization, as a standard for mobile phones

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