Diabetes: Explained Essay

There are many Nutrition-Related Diseases that affect the lives of millions of individuals everyday, but one most heard and seen is Diabetes. Diabetes is so common in fact that it affects roughly one-hundred million americans. There are two types of diabetes, type one is genetically predetermined and less common, and type two is totally preventable and very common. Diabetes in general terms is when blood sugar levels (glucose levels) in the body are too high due to producing little to no insulin or an abundance of cells that are insulin resistant.

The body’s digestive system is very delicate and can have detrimental effects on an individual’s health and life if functioning improperly. Since type two diabetes is incredibly common we’ll begin by talking about it first, type two diabetes is an incurable disease that many suffer from, it negatively impacts the individual’s digestive health and can result in death if not treated correctly. As mentioned before type two diabetes is very common and entirely preventable, it’s when a problem with your body causes sugar levels to elevate higher than normal for the individual causing hyperglycemia.

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If said individual is suffering from type two diabetes, it means that the insulin in the individuals body is not functioning properly, when this happens, insulin resistance is the cause. At first your body is able to adapt and create extra insulin in order to make up for the rising sugar levels in the body, but of course the body is not meant or able to create extra insulin for extensive periods of time and in result the sugar levels rise causing type two diabetes. How is type two diabetes caused in the first place? You are more likely to develop type two diabetes if you are physically inactive and/or obese, too much body weight is a risk factor and has the ability to cause insulin resistance (Mayo Clinic 2016). Genes can sometimes affect the person’s probability of developing type two diabetes, this can be predetermined by the individuals ethnicity, or if the person has a family history of obesity. The location the fat is redistributed in the body also makes a difference. Belly fat has been found to be linked to the causation of type two diabetes. Of course food intake has huge effects on the body as it can correlate with body weight, and when consuming greasy unhealthy foods on the daily your body can start to respond negatively over a period of time (hence why diabetes is so common in america); fun fact, fat distribution to the belly is more common in men due to the hormone testosterone. Symptoms of type two diabetes include being thirsty more frequently,needing to urinate more often,change in appetite, tiredness, eye problems, numbness or a feeling of your foot being asleep in feet or hands, sores that do not heal as quick , and unexplained weight loss (Mayo Clinic 2019). Symptoms most commonly develop slowly over time in the span of several years, the symptoms can go unnoticed by the individual that they might not even notice them. Many individuals show no symptoms and may not realize they have the disease until they have diabetes-related problems such as trouble with their vision and heart trouble. Health related problems that accompany this disease are an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, HBP, nerve damage, eye deterioration, slower or lack of healing, hearing trouble, susceptibility to skin issues, and even a higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Things you can do to prevent type two diabetes are choosing what types of food you intake wisely, these foods should contain lower caloric and fat values and contain higher fiber values, at least thirty to sixty minutes of simple physical activity a day, for example: walking, swimming, jogging, etc. Losing some of the excess body fat, and avoidance of being sedentary or a couch potato for too long can help prevent diabetes; try to get up and move around every thirty minutes since sitting still for long periods of time has been proven to increase your risk of developing diabetes. Generally metformin is usually the first medicine given to individuals suffering from type two diabetes, if the individual does not respond well to the medication given, insulin injections are usually the next option, along with controlling blood pressure levels, and cholesterol levels; close monitoring of food intake is essential as well. Type one diabetes and type two diabetes are essentially the same but the cause and function of the disease are distinct. Type one diabetes is determined by genetics and can sometimes be caused by viruses as well. Type one diabetes is typically found in children and teens but in rare instances can be found in adults. Type one diabetes is a lot less common than type two diabetes and is unpreventable and incurable. Type one diabetes is usually when the body’s own immune system destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, and in result the pancreas loses the ability to function correctly and produce insulin; without insulin to control blood sugar levels sugar levels in the blood begin to rise too much resulting in type one diabetes (NIDDK 2016). Insulin is needed in the body in order to allow glucose to enter cells and produce energy. Type one diabetes can also become deadly or negatively life altering if not treated correctly and monitored by a specialist. Symptoms of type one diabetes include increased thirst, frequent urination, bed-wetting in children who previously didn’t wet the bed, extreme hunger, weight loss without reason, irritability and mood changes,blurred vision, and fatigue. Certain health complications can occur when an individual is suffering from type one diabetes the risk for heart and blood vessel disease increases dramatically, and nerve damage caused by excess sugar that can cause damage to the tiny blood vessels that nourish your nerves (NIDDK 2016). Treatments for type one diabetes are taking insulin, carbohydrate and protein counting, constantly checking on your blood sugar levels, eating healthy foods, and exercising regularly in order to maintain a healthy weight. Both type one and type two diabetes require certain dietary restrictions that the individual must follow if wanting to be successful in keeping the signs and symptoms dormant or as dormant possible. Since the disease essentially affects the body the same way, dietary restrictions are similar. Foods that are essential for the individual to intake include greens/vegetables like carrots, broccoli, peppers, potatoes, green beans, etc. Fruits, grains, proteins such as lean meat, chicken or turkey without the skin, and dairy either low in fat or nonfat are also good to intake when suffering from diabetes; heart healthy oils that are liquid at room temperature such as olive and canola oil are also healthy options (NIDDK 2016). Foods that should be heavily limited if an individual has diabetes are fried foods and other foods high in saturated and trans fats, foods that contain high levels of sodium, sweets high in sugar such as baked goods, candy, etc. Drinks with added sugars such as sodas, juices, and energy drinks should also be avoided. If the individual decides to disregard these dietary restrictions the result will be negative detrimental effects to their health or death. Individuals with diabetes generally have to eat at the same time everyday some individuals may be able to be more flexible with their schedules, but long periods of time without the correct food intake can have negative health effects no matter how severe or mild the disease is in the individual. Diabetes is a disease that is so common yet so misunderstood, so many disregard warnings given by doctors when the prevention of the disease is so simple; diabetes is incurable and deadly, it should not be taken lightly no matter how common.

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