Crisis Management -Redo Essay

Excelsior Community College

Faculty of Business Management

School of Business Management and Entrepreneurial Studies

Bachelor of Science in Business Studies

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Crisis Management -Redo Essay
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Group Assignment

Lecturer: Ms. Angella Taylor


Nastassia BeckfordID # 20141442

Nichole Figueroa ID # 20151831

Dwayne Pinnock ID # 20142323

2019 June 17

Overview of Occupational Health and Safety Act in Jamaica

The role of safety and health measures in organizations is to help maintain a productive and satisfied workforce. Occupational Safety and Health Department (OSHD), is there to strengthen and streamline existing and pending legislative and institutional provisions designed to enhance the workplace environment.

The aim is to ensure adherence to and compliance with stipulated protocols regarding the creation of conducive workplace environments that will safeguard employees’ welfare, while enhancing productivity.

It is intended to provide the necessary data that will set national priorities for action aimed at progressive and continual improvement of workplace safety and health. It consists of several key elements, including the legal framework and data relating to occupational accidents and diseases.


Crisis management is the process of dealing with a major event that threatens to harm or has already harmed the organization. Although somewhat similar to crisis management and closely cooperating with it, risk management and business continuity management are different concepts.

Therefore, crisis management comprise of numerous aspects of as related to crisis ensuring; protection and or safety for the organization employees, employers and resources. The crisis management team roles are maintaining the emergency chain of command and using clear lines of reporting and communication, both internally and externally.

However, there must be solutions or implemented strategies for the overall organization to recover. These strategies are: conducting rescue operations, evacuating the injured and also evacuating to an offshore site where it is safe for the employees and employers and informing and coordinating relevant emergency services.

. Therefore, based on numerous crisis that affect the local and international companies, companies would have to prepare for the unexpected events or crisis such as awareness of health problem such as AIDS, obesity, terrorism, malnutrition, drug abuse and level of pollution.

Crisis Management Issues affecting the International Assignees

As International Human Resource personnel, it is a part of our research to highlight the issues assignees and employers faced in this region as well as to inform and educated assignees about the various crisis that could occur. The value of this service is design and implemented to be used as a guide for dealing with various form of crisis and health and safety problems that employees and organizations would confront in the global environment.

Health Issues

Research have been conducted throughout the years while these health issue existence. These statistics are important for local and international companies to examine, evaluate on the measures that the organization will be taking to ensure safety and the credibility of the research to inform the assignees and the general knowledge employers should have in the event these health issues could arise.

As defined by World Health Organization (WHO), it is a “State of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” The common types or forms of health issues that is at high risk causing serious health risk to persons are Dengue Fever, obesity and HIV/AIDS .

Dengue Fever is common viruses that have affected the region of Kingston& St. Andrew especially in the inner-city communities in the years of 1990-2008 respectively. In the year of 1996 and 1998 results in the highest outbreaks of an amount of 1,884 people died in 1996 and 1509 persons in 1998; while the lowest number of deaths was in 1999 and 2001 resulting in a total of 37 person died.

Obesity is a major crisis affecting Jamaica currently. As the country gears to measure the possibilities of lowering obesity levels as introducing various strategies such as natural juices and other remedies to prevent heart attack.

Based on Jamaica Health and Lifestyle survey (2008) illustrated 46% of the population was classified low physical activity or being inactive while a high apportionate value was currently consuming less than the daily recommend portions of fruits and vegetables.

The statistics illustrated from the survey for overweight person was 26.1 % in the year 2000 while in 2008 demonstrated an increase of 3%.

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) means a group of health problems that weakens the immune system. The most important fact about this disease; it is caused by a virus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The assignees would have to be informed of the how this virus is spread from one individual to another and the procedure and medical institutions to visit. The statistics provided are the number of persons affected in Jamaica:

The estimated valued of 32,000 persons are living with HIV and as many as 50% are unaware of their status.

The most urbanized parishes have the highest cumulative number of reported HIV cases: Kingston & St. Andrew – 1570.1 cases per 100,000 persons, and St. James – 2094.6 HIV cases per 100,000 persons. The cumulative AIDS case rates are higher among males (689.3 cases per 100,000) compared to females (504.9 cases per 100,000 females).

The total number of reported AIDS cases in Jamaica between January 1982 and December 2011 is 16,264. The total number of reported AIDS deaths in Jamaica between January 1982 and December 2011 is 8,498. Although the epidemic affects more men than women, over time females are accounting for an increased proportion of the AIDS cases that are reported annually.

Drug Abuse

Drugs can be broadly defined as substances that change the way the brain and body function. The research statistics from the National Council on Drug Abuse 2016 National Drug Prevalence Survey Findings is shown below:

Researchers have shown 40 % of the population report that they currently use alcohol while 75% of the population report drinking alcohol sometimes. The use of substance is higher in males than females; 5% currently smokes Ganja compared to 27% of males. The overall uses of drug are 16% uses Ganja, 28% smokes ganja not frequent.

Statistics have illustrated 17 % uses cigarette. The prevalence among males was 11 % while female was 5%.One in six males reported driving under the influence of alcohol or illegal drugs during the past year; one in seventeen females reported driving under the influence of alcohol.

There is underage (12-17 years) current use of all three substances 15 per cent for alcohol, 3.3 per cent for ganja and 2.0 per cent for tobacco. The Average age of first use of alcohol, tobacco or ganja is 15-16 years in males, later in females.

As examining the various crisis, it is important for to recognize how these factors will affect the assignees. The influence of drug abuse among teenage and young adults have increased through the means of group influence convincing persons to try smoking marijuana and cigarette.


Category 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Air Pollution36.0 37.0 30.0 21.0 21.0 9.0

Sewage Discharge & Odour 16.0 9.0 14.0 10.0 12.0 5.0

Water Pollution0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0

Improper waste disposal0.0 0.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0

TOTAL52.0 47.0 46.0 32.0 35.0 16.0

Source: National Environment and Planning Agency and produced by the Statistical Institute of Jamaica.

Pollution is defined as the introduction of harmful materials into the environment. The survey conduct by the National Environment and Planning Agency illustrated the various forms of pollution during the years of 2013-2018. The highest form of pollution affecting Jamaica as seen in the table above is Air Pollution averaging a percentage of 79% (37/47) in the year of 2014 while the lowest was in the year of 2016 (9/16:56%).

As it relates to Air Pollution, the notice of Riverton City is main area that causes pollution and the sewage odour that surrounded communities endure during the day and night.

The negative impact of Air pollution are causes skin disease or cancer, blockage of skin pores, difficulty in breathing and wheezing.

A study published in June 2014 in the Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives showed that air pollution can affect learning ability, short-term memory and impulsivity. It also showed that early exposure to air pollution can cause the same changes in the brain as schizophrenia and autism.

Crisis Management Plan

Assess the risk

Risk is a possibility of the occurrence of an unfavorable situation during the implementation of plans and the budget of an enterprise (Tepman 2002). In assessing the point or level of the crisis, International Human Resource Personnel are concerned with identifying the risk, assessing the crisis and to find measure to mitigate the activity or the event that is causing harm or about to cause harm to the assignee.

Size of the risk – this entail a detail examination or evaluation of the crisis at the particular time the event or activity took place. Also to examine the possibilities of a worst situation happening to the assignee. As Human Resource Personnel it’s a part of the orientation to help international assignees to understand the nature of the risk and the preventative measures for the risk to not occur.

Types of potential problems for each locale – as the first step is to assess the risk, evaluate the size of the crisis; each assignee might experience different crisis, therefore it is important to find the necessary agency or company to address the crisis if it is out of the control of the company itself. The types of risk that can affect an assignee are :

Non-financial risk causes losses which cannot be expressed in financial terms (e.g. risks associated with some types of personal insurance, such as reaching a certain age).

Personal risk is a risk which causes the loss of personal rights such as life, health, the ability to work, etc. (e.g. the risk of disease or bodily harm).

Orientation and Training – The orientation and training session entails a detail seminar whereby the general knowledge of the international assignment is being known and the various crisis that each countries experience on a daily basis. The seminar will entail demonstration based on the crisis that the assignee would encounter and what is supposed to done in the event and also the emergency numbers to contact. As a part of the orientation, there are several documents that would be needed to submit such as visa, passports, health documents and National Identification to identify who is at risk.

As a part of the training session, this session will include a brief explanation of local customs and laws, politics, health and safety, along with cultural sensitivity and background of the company. Also a language class will be schedule for the assignees that speaks different language.

Recovery Strategies

Reducing of Health Issues

Putting in place comprehensive Health Promotion and health in public policies to increase individual and institutional awareness and responsibility for health.

Prevention of deficiency diseases through health promotion and education, information dissemination and nutrition demonstration, and increasing human resources (field workers and nutrition/dietetic staff)

Public Education and Health promotion for high risk women

Reducing the spreading of HIV/AIDS

Training in clinical and community based diagnosis and provide treatment of HIV/AIDS.

Dissemination of information on the disease and its prevention through every possible mean of communication.

Expand access to diversified HIV testing and counseling services

Expand and optimize HIV treatment and care for children, adolescents and adults.

Prevention of Dengue Fever

Get rid of all old tyres, tins, bottles, plastic containers, coconut shells and anything in which rain water can settle.

Clear roof gutters and eaves often to prevent water from settling.

Wearing light coloured clothing and cover your body as much as possible.

Using of mosquito repellant that contains DEET

Reduction of Obesity

Exercise Regularly

Healthy Diet plan

Monitoring of weights

Drug Abuse

Effective dealing with peer pressure

Seek help for mental illness

Provide employment for the young boys or involvement in activities.

Leviation of Pollution

Proper Disposal of waste

Recycling of plastic bottles

Preparation for the International Assignment

The stages of the preparation for the international assignees have 5 main steps. Firstly, establishing and maintain relationship comprises of focusing on or to get familiarize with the surrounding of the local organization and is not limited to the organization surrounding of the organization but also involves the place of living. The organization would have consider the assignee family or relative and to provide sufficient information about the assignment and the location to be able to make informed decisions about the desirability of such an assignment.

Secondly, the preparation objectives- this involving the terms and conditions of the assignment or in other word the contract the assignees will sign. The cultural awareness and knowledge of the host country the assignees will visit and the country native language.

Thirdly, the form of training; Pre-departure training is a training aimed at preparing the outgoing expatriates for the assignment, providing information on the meaning of this assignment and on the whole process of the assignment ahead. The type of training the assignees will be engaging in are cultural orientation which focuses on the awareness of the country’s culture, language, food etc., Language instruction is to provide practice to learn the country’s native language and the area study.

Fourthly, the post- arrival training – this training involves the cultural orientation and training which involves both the assignee and relative of the assignee should be engage in an orientation which briefed on them on the assignment such as the compensation package, benefits and taxes and security procedures. Also this steps involves a intergroup problem solving which will help the assignees when faced with difficult tasks/ problems and solve the problems as a team. The assignment of a local/ culture mentor to assist or to guide the assignees through any difficulty pertaining to the country’s culture or language.

Lastly, the training outcomes are the experiences or benefits that the assignees gain from the training. The outcomes such as knowledge about cultural, political ,economic of the host country, awareness of the needs and expectation of the different parties interested in the international operation and awareness of the problems of the family relationship in the host country.


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