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U23 1804 Task 2 81959 Khalkhali Aram Key Principles of Fine Art Management Fine art is comprised of different areas like drawing, painting, sculpture, and ceramics, or occasionally, architecture, literature, music, dramatic art, or dancing (Collins English dictionary). At first glance art management may appear as a simple field but practically is a complicated major. In spite of starting point for art management was in America 1960, the turning point was establishment of Arts Council of Great Britain(ACGB) and continued in other commonwealth countries such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the USA.

Since Managerialism is more facilitator than target and is more approach than abstract, therefore directly supports, conducts also assists in carrying out of others (Chong, 2002). However fine art management is a comprehensive field which is a combination of arrangement, planning, business, aesthetic and dealing with organizations, audiences and artists. Also, Theory of management attempts to obtain a goal which is output can be foreseeable by having an accurate control over inputs (Byrnes, 2015).

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Art management is also known as art administration which employs marketing administration skills to the world of art. As Financial difficulties are not a new issue for artists and most of them are genuine consequently the lack of this field has been required. In addition Artist’s creation can be affected by socio-economic status therefore they sacrifice their economic status for aesthetic (Caplin,1998) as a result fine art management is a specialty which not only aids art organizations to attract audiences and money but also improve the quality of artist’s production and life. There are three major foundations of management include: advertising, producing and budget management which are very essential. Social institutions, organizations and new businesses, preparing programs, universal understanding and social approach, have become part of a unity by art management. productions of art centres, Dance companies, galleries and theatres are some examples of this field. Also, the variety of chances are created by art management with methods for coordinated effort and participation (Herke & Thews, 2018).This essay will explain four fundamental principles which are: firstly, managerial authority is taking responsibility and accomplish a project in art organization. Secondly, economic facts which is expectancy and organising budgetary. Thirdly, aesthetic features also are important principle for art manager due to working with art form should form be attractive for audiences. lastly, social aspects are most demanding part for manager as the art be meaningful by audiences and other organizations.Additionally, it will describe the applications of fine arts management. Finally, it will Evaluate the principles. There are four fundamental principles in art management including:managerial authority is a significant principle with giving request and being responsible. A manager is characterized by individual who is in charge of the work performance of at least one person. Because of the acceleration of the growing arts in twentieth century affected on increasing the role of art managers but in Europe and the United States, the invention of technology like radio and movie affected on audiences therefore the role of art manager was presented. For instance, there was significant decrease in audiences by 1920 as the lack of resident theatre companies in Europe and the United States but in the second half of the twenty century the authority of managers caused the improvement in number of audiences in Broadway and regional theatre system(Byrnes, 2014). However, making a move and calculated reasoning is possible by collaborating between administrative, economic and aesthetic objectives (Chong, 2002).Economic fact is the most and greatest principle for any managerialism field therefore concentration of managers on fine art by fact is the ability to consolidate budgetary and creative viewpoints. In fact, there are three levels for classical industrial economy from generation to appropriation to utilization. Economic impact studies started in 1980s and endeavoured to measure the monetary significance of the art (Chong, 2002). Studies about economy effects are really useful, they help to accentuate the financial estimation to expression of the art. There are some activities that are not purely artistic such as purchases in the gift shop, food and drinks, transport and stay in hotels. These activities have valuable effect on-community both financially and spiritually. As a result, income should take care of expenses by having proper financial reports in art business (Chong,2002). For instance, the 2016 Art and finance report presents a challenge time for both artists and markets and management business. The growth was slow in the end of 2015 and in early 2016 in economic because of the uncertainly perspective of financial arts market (The Art and Collectibles Market report 2018, Deloitte).Aesthetic feature is one of the four principles in the art field. Management in art field is different from other careers. That is why It should be a combination of form and concept. Indeed, in fine art, function is not the goal. Aesthetic comes from philosophy which is about the essence of art and our experience of this concept. The concept appeared in 18th century in Europe and was expanded in England where some philosophers tried to combine various fields like poetry, sculpture, music and dance -create a sophisticated type of fine art. This combination was named les beaux arts which means fine arts. According to Immanuel Kant, the aesthetic form is more important than function. He also believed that a work of art is truly explained by how it can impress the audience or its creator not by the virtue or frame of its own .As a result, art is something over reality, art is a sense of perfection, full of joy and happiness, the community can be improved by art, it can be educational, curative in both physical and mental aspects, can be utilised as a method for connection and correlation (Bruyn, 2002). Apparently religious ritual is a first purpose in art form. From the prehistoric cave paintings of France, to the Sistine Chapel but in different society and different era it carries different purpose like propaganda or social commentary or storytelling. In spite of all these purposes creating beauty has been challenged in the modern era. Therefore, art manager should be more considered this principles for thoughtful people in industrialized and democratic society. For example, Rembrandt was more precise the quality of painting and colour in his picture as a aesthetic aspect of his work.( This web site Copyright © 1995 by Charlotte Jirousek)Social aspects related to audiences or customers’ expectations. Art participation surveys usually spotlight on the overall public, both users and non-users of a wide range of art programs. Thus, the focus of several surveys has been on promotion plans or financial impact studies which include computing the cost made by attenders. Chong (2002) also believes that regardless of the quality of the art such as opera, ballet, indoor and outdoor concerts or even street performances, overall education level among art audience is higher than the public. Therefore, having a survey and knowledge about the people who are interested to going in this event is essential for managers (Byrnes, 2014). As described by Hood (1983), she was interested in the reason why the museums are not attractive enough. She also tries to find a solution for this issue in order to bring more audience to the museum. So, she distinguishes five profile properties of pleasurable or fulfilling relaxation encounter: the opportunity to learn, communication, the challenge of new experiences, feeling convenient in one’s environment and participation in various activities.There are some applications of principles in fine art management. Initially, for organizations and art centres to survive themselves with social movement and artistic concept which are central parts of any art organization’s mission (Margaret, Radbourn,1996). For an association to endure, selling is the major part. Art organizations need to discover a proper market in order to produce benefit. As a result, organizational structure and charts should be practical and advantageous for all organizations like theatre company, symphony orchestra, dance company, art museum and galleries to show five essential elements about this organizations: division of work, supervisory relationships, communication channels, major subunits, and levels of management. Moreover, aesthetic feature is a tool for artists who have a high degree of specialization in their own art to get benefit when they enter the field of arts management, while some entrepreneurs enter this field without much background in the arts. However, in order to be professional in managing the arts, it is reasonable to have an understanding of the history of multiple art forms. With this orientation also, artists have a perspective of the arts in a broad frame in addition when they are collaborating as an art manager. Aesthetic feature determines high and low arts which former defined by learned and acquired taste, religion and nature and latter are driven by pleasure. These frames are useful for artists and who are working in art manager field to improve their productivity as accepted by culture(Walter, 2015).Marketers and producers also benefit from economic principle of art management. Radbouren and Fraser (1996) state that, marketing in the art is the vital procedure that satisfies the mission of organization. From the mission to usage and assessment, the item, value, advancement and play systems of the promoting plan underline the requirement for client introduction as opposed to item orientation. For instance, the New York Philharmonic Orchestra demonstrates the potential marketing between a sponsor and arts organisation. The partnership started in 1980 and expand into five years, and second one expiring at the end of 1991. The manager mentioned that sponsorship developed marketing and economic part.Finally, all staff working in art area can benefit from existing of managerialism authority. According to Byrnes (2015, p:79), Unity of command can be applied to arts organization in the supervisor and employee working relationship. The idea of unity of direction comes in to play with the curator, choreographer, conductor, crew head leading a work group. Art manager is responsible to organise for alliance crew to follow schedule to develop for both artists and attenders (Byren, 2015). Creating ownership in art organization and making it their artistic home for all artists, staffs, audiences, patrons and volunteers, make art institution meaningful involvement and let them to know that they are valued and appreciated keeps them committed (Volz, 2017). In conclusion, management of fine art tends to provide profit and decrease loss in both financial and artistic aspects. In this way it should satisfy not only artists, art centre, owners and producers but also the audience expectations. It assists art business owner such as theatre or gallery owners to increase financial benefits by improving anticipation of their goal. In other words, an art manager is the leader of a group of artists and marketers by helping them to actuate their goals and benefits in the same direction which will end in prosperity. ReferencesBrkic,A. (2009). Teaching Arts Management. The journal of Arts and Management, Law and Society, 38(4), 270-280Byrnes, W. (2015). Management and The Arts. 5th ed. Burlington: Focal Press.Caplin, L. (1998). The business of art. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall Press.Chong, D. (2002). Arts Management. London: Routledge.Hood, M.(1992). Significant Issue in Museum Audience Research. A Journal of Visitor Behaviour. Ohio Hood, M. (1992). After 70 Years of Audience Research, What Have We Learned?. Visitor Studies, 5(1), pp.16-27.Radbourne, J. and Fraser, M. (1996). Arts Management a Practical Guide. NSW: Allen & Unwin.Stalling Walter, C. (2015). Arts management: An Entrepreneurial Approach. New York: Routledge.Thews,A., & Herke,S.(2018).Paternalism in (International) Cultural Management and Collaboration. Art management Quarterly, Cultural Inequalities, No 129, 35Bruyn, S. (2019). Art and Aesthetics (Severyn T. Bruyn). [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 Jan. 2019]. Volz, J. (2017). Introduction to arts management. UK: Bloomsbury.Hanks, P., MacLeod, W. and Urdang, L. (1990). Collins dictionary of the English language. London: Collins.< PAGE >< PAGE 1>

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