Complete this week’s assigned readings (as described below) from Practical Skeptic – Core Concepts, and view all of the multimedia and other materials for this week. Read Four of the articles in the list below in Practical Skeptic – Reader: Reading 14 – The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Reading 15 – The Pathology of Imprisonment Reading 16 – What is that little extra? Exploring the social norms of tipping Reading 17 – Commanding the Room in Short Skirts: Cheering as the Embodiment of Ideal Girlhood Reading 24 – Not Just Bodies: Strategies for Desexualizing the Physical Examination of Patients Then answer the questions associated with those four readings (i.e., Reading 14 plus three others). The questions for each reading are provided below. Reading 14 – The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. What does Goffman mean when he says that life can be looked at “as if it were theater?” Do you believe this suggests that people have no authenticity or that they are insincere? Defend your answer. Reading 15 – It has been said that “the clothes make the man”; however, the theme of Zimbardo’s article is that sometimes “the role makes the [person].” Explain what this means within the context of Zimbardo’s classic and controversial experiment. Reading 16 – What do you think are some of the norms that govern tipping in American society? Define the use of moral and affective economy in the article and relate to the analysis of tipping in society. Reading 17 – Commanding the Room in Short Skirts: Cheering as the Embodiment of Ideal Girlhood. Female athletes frequently are regarded with suspicion in American society – for example, many athletic women may be suspected of being lesbians. How is it that female cheerleaders manage to avoid this sort of suspicion? Reading 24 – Not Just Bodies: Strategies for Desexualizing the Physical Examination of Patients. The authors argue that “female patients are protected by chaperones, but men must be protected from chaperones.” What do they mean? This article focuses mostly on what practitioners do to desexualize physical exams. In your experience, what role does the patient play in desexualizing physical exams? Do you believe the patient’s response is gendered? (That is, do men play their roles as patients during the physical exam differently from how women play their roles? Cite any sources, including assigned readings, according to APA citation guidelines. Save your answers in a Word document. Submit your paper to After viewing the originality report for your paper from, make any necessary changes to your paper before submitting it to the Submit tool.


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The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life

Goffman refers to life as a theater. He means that humanly is like theaters putting the performance to fit those who are around us. This implies that human beings behave differently before others by taking different roles and actions so to send a separate information home (Goffman, 2014). However, when left in a different environment, the people behave on their true nature and bare different character. However, this does not mean that people are fake. They only take the roles that can fit their audience. The people would want to appear confident even when acting.

Pathology of Imprisonment:

The experiment of the Mock Prison was conducted and Zimbardo to determine the impacts of putting ordinary people in different parts (Zimbardo, 2013). The observations made indicated that those who were assigned to the guards had different characteristics as compares to those who were left to the prisoners. The reality drove these people to show the conviction that they would not show. The particular features bore from the environment pushes people to adopt specific behaviors.

Exploring Social Norms of Tipping in the American society

Taking the orders is the norm that enables the American people to make the requests. For instance, the American restaurants have the waiters and waitress who give the instructions to the people who visit the restaurants (Milinari, 2012). The Americans are adherent to the direction, and they obey the orders. Therefore, the norm that leads the people to take the orders. Additionally, the waitress is advised to be friendly and have sound mind while dealing with the customers in the management of the organization.

The managers should use the issue of salaries to deal with the employees. The managers should also share the tipping pots among the employees and deal with the employees in positive and encouraging ways.

Commanding the room in short skirts.

The nature and act of cheerleading are grounded around the girls cheering for and backup for men. Based on the writer’s opinion, the sport highlights all female items. Additional declaration complete in the issue paramount recaps the response “lassies like to be the cheerleaders based on the trust that men resolve to like them extra (Adams & Bettis, 2017).  They believe that they would be seen as cute women in short skirts”. Tying the argument on this reason, similar stigmas related to some female sports is not allied to cheerleading.



Adams, N., & Bettis, P. (2017). Commanding the Room in Short Skirt. Cheering as the Embodiment of Ideal Girlhood.

Goffman, E. (2014). The Presentation Of Self in Everyday Life. 1-3.

Milinari, P. (2012). What is the Little Extra; Exploring the social Norms of Tipping. 1-2-12.

Zimbardo, P. (2013). Pathology of Imprisonment.


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