CHAPTER2WORK PROCESS 21 Designing171922 Garment production…1924 Essay



2.1) Designing……………………………………………………………………………..17-19

2.2) Garment production……………………………………………………………..19-24

2.3) Machines……………………………………………….…..………25-26

2.4) Costing………………………………………………………………27

2.1) Design development

Research work Design & Measurement Sampling Pattern making Grading


a. Research work

The first step of research work is creating a design by researching current fashion trends and making predictions of future trends. Some designers conduct their own research, while others rely on trend reports published by fashion industry trade groups. Designers work according to fashion forecasting. Trend reports indicate what styles, colours, and fabrics will be popular for a particular season in the future.

Fashion designers begin to sketch preliminary designs. While doing this they also focus on the silhouette’s and try to experiment with them to create something new.

b. Design & Measurement Sheets

Design Sheet is something we at NSC use constantly in order to display our design concepts and communicate with the team, manufacturer and customers. We are often in situations where we need to churn out these hand drawn representations of our garments rather quickly, so it is important to know specific shortcuts and tricks that allow us to focus on what is of utmost importance- the clothing.

For fabric specification we use to mention the name of fabric and for colour reference shade number were specified from standard shade card.

Measurement sheets had specification of the required size of the designs, in both customize design and for store piece, it was generally standard size 8 and 10.

c. Sampling

Different color combinations for a particular design are maintained in a file and the fabric number is written so as to make the task easier. The colour combination for screen printing design is also specified in that file. The placement of the motif is also mentioned.

The process of sample department varies from context to context, and the development process covers a wide range of diverse products from new fibres, fibre blends, new yarns, fabric structures, finishes and surface effects and all types of made up products such as knitwear, hosiery, cut and sewn garments, household products and technical. There are different phases of sampling;


It covers the development of the initial concept or design idea through its approval by the customers and full review/risk analysis by the development and production teams.


This phase covers the process following acceptance of the first prototype sample and includes the functions of sourcing and ordering component, testing the product and carry out trails once the finalized sample specifications has been drawn up,


This phase is third and final phase commences. This phase includes a range of activities that are carried out before large scale or bulk production capacity outside the home producer/developers wherever this is applicable.

d. Pattern making

After sampling is done patterns are develop for the designs. With the help of pattern making tools i.e.

• Basic stationary

• L-scale

• Hip curve

• French curve

e. Grading

After approval of design grading is done. In grading process the original designs are made on light weight paper sheet, according to different sizes such as ;8 and 10 for women, and 38 and 40 men. Now the designs are transferred from brown paper to light weight thin paper sheet. Grading of pattern depends on the manufacturing and number of designs or it can also for a bulk. The pattern draping method is used for more elaborate and unique designs that are hard to obtain through the flat pattern method. This is because it is nearly impossible to account for the way a fabric will drape or hang on the body without an actual dimension test run. It involves creating a muslin mock-up pattern by pinning fabric directly on a dress form, then transferring the muslin outline and markings onto a paper pattern or using the muslin as the pattern itself, this process comes under draping.

2.2) Garment production

a. Fabric sourcing/Selection

Fabric selection in garment manufacturing will ultimately be one of the deciding factors in the success of the finished product. A designer focus on the best type of fabric for the design; once the type of fabric has been identified, designer visits the market for the sourcing of the fabric to be used to make the final, finished garment.

After taking these basic requirements into consideration the next step is selecting the specific fabric for production. This is where things can get tricky and it’s important to identify the fabric that will maintain the right balance between quality and cost effectiveness of the fabric in terms of quantity: that is, can you get more finished product out of less effectiveness. When considering fabric options, keep in mind that not all materials are appropriate for all garments and that the fabric used in your manufacturing will greatly influence the look of the final product.

b. Buying process

The buying decision process is the decision making process used by consumers regarding market transactions before, during, and after the purchase of a good or service. It can be seen as a particular form of a cost–benefit analysis in the presence of multiple alternatives.

c. Dyeing:

After buying the fabric, if the quality of material is satisfactory but the colour is not as same as required, then the fabric is sent for the process of dyeing. It’s done in-house at workshop.

d. Pattern Making & Cutting:

Pattern are made on brown paper as per the designs then, Under spreading fabric rolls are spread and multiple layers of fabric (fabric depends on the collection and the number of designs) are spread, pattern is placed on the fabric and marking is done through glass marking pen and they further cut in heap.

In the process of cutting first the fabric is checked for defects in and then it is laid for cutting. Cutting room consists of two cutting tables and one master who use to cut Front, Back and Bodice and Sleeves of the garment with the help of cutting tools.

e. Interlocking:

Interlocking is done to secure the garments edges .Its mostly od mens wear.

f. Embellishments & Embroideries :

The most important thing which one keep in the mind while embellishing the fabric is

“Principles of the arts “the design should have-balance, harmony, proportions, emphasis, variety, movement and rhythm. The term embellishment means anything extra added to the fabric surface to enhance its beauty make the fabric eye-catching, elegant and attractive with different techniques make fabric good according to the taste and demand of consumer. Add value to the fabric.

g. Stitching/Sewing:


Tailor masters working on a simple project need only a few sewing tools, such as measuring tape, needle, thread, cloth, and sewing shears. More complex projects may only need a few more simple tools to get the job done, but there are an ever-growing variety of helpful sewing aids available.

In addition to sewing shears, rotary cutters may be used for cutting fabric, usually used with a cutting mat to protect other surfaces from being damaged. Seam rippers are used to remove mistaken stitches. Special marking pens and chalk are used to mark the fabric as a guide to construction.

Pressing and ironing are an essential part of many sewing projects, and require additional tools. A steam iron is used to press seams and garments, and a variety of pressing aids such as a seam roll or tailor’s ham are used to aid in shaping a garment. A pressing cloth may be used to protect the fabric from damage


When the tailor master has gathered the necessary tools to tackle a pattern, the process of garment construction includes several elements.

Before cutting, fabric for sewing should be prepared, often by prewashing and ironing, and ensuring that the fabric grain is straight. Next, the sewer lays out pattern pieces, often based on a diagram provided with the pattern, with the intent of using as little fabric as possible. Patterns will specify whether to cut on the grain or bias cut. Special placement may be required for directional, striped, or plaid fabrics.

Supporting materials, such as interfacing, interlining, or lining may be used in garment construction, to give the fabric a more rigid or durable shape.

Before or after the pattern pieces are cut, it is often necessary to mark the pieces to provide a guide during the sewing process. Marking methods may include using pens, pencils, or chalk, tailor’s tacks, snips, pins, or thread tracing, among others.

In addition to the normal lockstitch, construction include edge stitching, under stitching, stay stitching and topstitching types include the plain seam, zigzag seam, flat seam, French seam, and many others.

h. Finishing:

After stitching of final garment, finishing is done like thread cutting, steam ironing, ironing that are used for proper ironing of the garment, then labelling, price tag attaching, folding, primary packaging, secondary packaging, final packaging and final inspection are done as per buyer or client requirement. Finally products are ready for delivery.

i. Packaging:

Packaging means wrapping, compressing, filling or creating of goods for the purpose of protection of goods and their convenient handling.

Packaging is an important part of the product, which has to receive a lot of attention to the people. It is concerned with designing & producing of appropriate packages for a product. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages.

j. Dispatch:

After packaging is done the garment is directly handed to the client or if it has to delivered to certain destination ,its been dispatched through courier.

2.3) Machines

• Sewing machine- This machine is used for normal sewing purpose. It does not have many variations.

• Embroidery machine- Embroidery machine is used to create patterns on textiles. It is also used in the fashion industry to decorate garments and apparel.

• Interlocking machine- In this machine 5 threads work at a time in the form of chain and one needle works from inside. This is usually used for over locking purpose.

• Hemming machine- This machine is used for finishing the hems of the top as well as lowers. The hem is folded as this machine finishes it.


This is a designer store not an apparel industry so costing depends on the individual garment which includes labour charges as well. If the customer is buying readymade garment they are paying according to the price tags but for the customize stuff there is two key points in which the final cost to the customer ultimately comes from the cost of making the garment and designing it and added profit on the final selling product.


3.1) MY WORK AND TASK……………………………………………29-35

3.2) CLIENT PROFILE……………………………………………………..36

3.3) WORKING EXPERIENCE…………………………………………….37


Mostly interns will not do any actual designing as part of the internship, I have done other duties necessary to the design process. Doing internship is an excellent step toward realizing our dream of working in the fashion houses and industry as well. So,I did my internship at NSC Mumbai Store.

My part of duties as an intern:-


Here I learned how things work in the store that I was not aware about. I got to know that how the designer deals with the external world, how they attract their buyers for buying their garments and how they communicate with the clients. I also got to know how the orders are placed by the customers and how the labours work on it as per their instruction making the garment to meet the exact demand, need and quality of the buyers. First day I was doing work as per the instruction of the head designer. Apart from designing process I kept eye on the system through checking mails and also observed store members, how they are trying to convince the customers. What strategy they are applying in the store, and also tracking the items coming in and going out. I was also checking with the masters for garment production. How they tackle the situation whether it’s regarding to the financial plan or the market strategy.


I also dealt with the clients, (dealing with client is such a task) introduced them with the things they are looking for and also got to interact and understand their taste or style and help them out with what they exactly want (because nowadays everyone wants to be in the trend or wants to look elegant in their own) – readymade garments, or helping them with the customisation part, such as-what colors they are looking for, type of silhouettes or ornamentation on the garment, according to their budget.

If they want customized garment I along with the head designer use to discuss their requirements for the occasion they are looking for, and use to design the garments .Then I use to sketch the design on the design sheet and take measurements for the further process of garment.

Design sheets were made for the customer understand their specific design requirements and also was helpful to instruct the production head for the further process of constructing the garment.


I explored the market for the required fabric, different varieties of fabric textures and colors .And also kept on experimenting to play with the different textures according to the Garment silhouettes with the in-house fabric collection.


It is the practice of developing floor plans and three-dimensional displays in order to maximize sales, both goods and services can be displayed to highlight their features and benefits. The purpose of such visual merchandising is to attract, engage and motivate the customer towards making a purchase.

I worked for both interior and exterior displays in other terms in-store design and window displays. The goal for these techniques is to attract the attention of the customers, entice them into the store, and in-store design helped us for doing this and influence purchasing decisions.


There, I also got to learn how to style or help the stylist in sourcing garments for the celebrities for

different occasion. I styled Arman Malik, Urvashi Rautela, Guru Randhawa, Parthamesh Maulinkar etc.

I also got the opputunity to assist backstage for Parkinson’s Fundraising Show with trials and



Client handled –

• The Mahansaria Family ,Bangkok.

• The Hazare Family, Pune.

• The Morani Family,Mumbai.

• Celebrity clients, Arjan Bajwa, Viraf Patel, Gurleen Grewal, Ashwini Kalsekar,etc.


Experience is priceless, it’s once in a life-time opportunity. It was a wonderful experience to me because I didn’t know how this thing was going work it was different for us. Since internship may last only for a few month, but they are a great way to build up work for different companies or allow us to build up our range of abilities.

I learned skills which are very beneficial for making it up to customer’s expectation, dealing with the customers with the price, time and for solving purpose.

I gained production experience by assisting the designer with design and development process. Learned how to organize the store, styling celebrity and assisted backstage for a fundraising show. Also I learned how to get work done by employees and labours.

I also learned about the responsibilities like checking the production update, handling special events. Most importantly I learned time-management skills and self-motivation.

• With Nivedita Saboo Ma’am and NSC team (Mumbai).







• Picture Courtesy –

And others were clicked by me with permission.

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