Chapter ITHE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTINGSIntroduction Being able to read is the process Essay

Chapter ITHE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTINGSIntroduction Being able to read is the process of looking at a series of written symbols and getting meaning from the data to relay. It is the process of fundamental ability such children shall adept all the time and able to learn current learning as well as in planned. Supposing that the learners didn’t learn to read and comprehend, create including avail to interact the belief as well as the overview, the encouraging circumstances because of a fulfilling and fruitful growth hold actively agree (Lyon, 2013).

Learning toward perceived is a process that builds mastery, an active process that improves several stages and processes that act simultaneously to achieve comprehension. Perceptive the written word is one way the attention widen in its ability. Written ideas is believed to improve a persons creative ability, communication skill both written and spoken and exposure to reading exercises promotes reading skills. In between reading and understanding there exists a relationship.

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When reading, it also involves a process, in extracting meaning that is called decoding, while the process of expressing what one has said is called encoding (Juel, 2012). With this relationship, readers will keep impressive talent toward usual words immediately Furthermore, education is a vital skill necessary as well as being successfully in the community. Placement to look forward one and another is economical also with human , learners condition managed reading Comprehension. Having the capability to read and comprehend is the primary knowledge that affects pupils learning background and achievement in the institution. Learners which act and determined during the time of readers about reading judgment are more likely to be talented in other subject areas. In this study of Comprehension of reading faced by students. This was also supported by Kong (2012) This learners which do not develop lesson reading accomplishments at the time of elementary education are at risk of bounded academic development and of narrow budgetary and good fortunes in life. In addition Lyon (2017) added that persistent reading failure leads to frustration. He also added that juvenile offenders have reading problems, unable to read and write. His findings implied that there is a close relationship between illiteracy and crime. Thus, strong reading skills have been linked to many personal, social and economic benefits. Developing strong reading skills in students is one of the key goals of education. As Linane (2014) identified the causes of students’ struggle in which 2/3 of students are struggling readers which means that they cannot identify the ideas when they read. Also, she added two issues, these are the language being used in the text and the question design in the book. It is believed that the struggles of students when reading will affect the proficiency when they read. In Asia, Jaua (2017) identified problems that encountered during the reading process. These problems are construction of sentences, pronouncing of words and understanding what has been read. The claim was assisted by the research made by EGRA Benchmarks and Standards Research Report of 2017 who assessed reading proficiency in different countries it was found out that being a proficient reader requires students to understand the language of the text, know individual sounds, letters, can decode and recognize words. Among this sequence of reading skills, there is a recognition of the critical relationship between fluency and comprehension and the need to achieve both automaticity and accuracy in reading individual words, followed by words strung together, sentences, and longer pieces of connected text (i.e., a reading passage). Until this word level reading is mastered, most effort is exerted in simply decoding words, and insufficient attention can be given to making meaning of these words (Rasinski, 2011). In the reading instruction in the Philippines, Protacio et al. (2013) asserts that reading practices in a public and English classroom are mainly code breakers (chunking of words or sound-letter relationships and there pronunciation of words and documents in which give lesser opportunities to the students’ contact in reading. Reading is an important gateway to different disciplines (De Dios, 2015). Philippine Basic Education identified problems in reading that affects every discipline in school especially understanding word problem, comprehending the text and the ability to articulate sounds. Afterward had been, having the ability to look and understand the letters, words an symbols proficiently with the advance knowledge and progress to long hours of practice of subjective aspects an emotion considered a part from bodily changes the way of execution of a child went in the institution for higher learning. It was stated by Martohardjono et al. (2009) that difficulties in reading frequently arise towards learners gain knowledge in life because they didn’t master English strong. They often times commit mistakes and commit failure while reading sentences, especially sentences that are foreign or their second language like English. Second language learners (SLLs) favor to have below learning performance as early as elementary grades and promote toward to decrease afterward the other English oral companion. She further claimed that the time the children reach fourth grade, their grade reading scores begin to decrease and continue to do so for the next five years, a phenomenon that has been termed as the fourth grade slump. In this regard, knowledge and perceptive develop into meaningful weapon toward be taught (Cromley, 2009). Enter towards knowing of the different things to attitude in observation used to build right quality to another boundary of comprehension and communication and through the mastery of the several study customs, affects as person behavior one can develop the enthusiasm necessary in the continual persistence of learning (Shippen, Houchins, Crites, Derzis & Patterson, 2010). In the end, the effect causes several learning differences in the children and creating big problems in the total school system (Bryce, 2011). Therefore, one that is unable to comprehend and communicate well in any forms is deprived of a wonderful learning experience in the life as a person (Cimmiyotti, 2013; Shin, Davison, Long, Chan, & Heistad, 2013; Quirk, & Beem, 2012). In this ambiance, and condition must have a judgment peaked out from the primary minister of need theory. The judgment on the printed materials or sheet of papers of the level to comprehend of the learners have made cautious items pointed mostly on the internal structure of one’s persons and to the degree of organization in one’s thoughts (Peterson & Taylor, 2012). Accordingly, schools teach the children to do these things rightly, however, several variables affect the degree of learning and the extent to what should be learned. In School reading is the important subject areas to ne learned by the pupils for this is the most important things. It is said to be one of the most necessary academic skills. Besides, it is a major pillar upon which the teaching/learning process is built. The reading ability plays a central role in the teaching/learning success at all educational stages. Having any difficulty in this skill will result in variety of consequences on all subjects of study, since reading includes a variety of sub-skills.Moreover, the results showed that most of the takers, both in elementary and high school, were weak in the reading comprehension part in English. This denotes that learners had low reading proficiency. In the classroom setting, most of the pupils who are good oral communication are mostly performing well in their academics. But, it should be noted that communication is just a part of the total abilities to be developed in the learners. Hence, this study would like to determine the reading proficiency levels of the pupils both in silent and oral reading and to correlate this to their academic performance. Most importantly, this study wants to identify which of the four factors affect the reading proficiency of the students. These four factors are the parent factor, home factor, pupil factor, and teacher factor. Consequently, by identifying which of these four factors are relevant to the improvement and development of the students’ reading comprehension, the results would provide the teachers with thorough knowledge on what intervention plans can be developed to address the deficiencies. The Department of Education (DepEd) intensifies reading literacy in schools by forcing the program called Every Child A Reader Program (ECARP) [3]. The undersecretary said that the new program aims to make every Filipino a reader at the end of Grade I. The undersecretary is expecting that no pupil will be promoted to higher grades unless he/she manifests mastery and basic literacy skills in particular grade [4]. Reading and reading comprehension are interrelated skills. In order for students to be able to comprehend what they are reading, they have to develop comprehension skills in reading. By itself, the concept of reading comprehension is wide in breadth and depth. Comprehension is the ultimate outcome of having read. It is the most important ongoing activity of reading. These statements show bearing to the study insofar as the ultimate objective of the developed reading primer is towards the development of reading comprehension by integrating the other reading skills to ensure permanency in learning. Jonhston [5] considers reading comprehension as building bridges between the new and the unknown and the importance of prior knowledge are vital in the reading instruction. Comprehension simply cannot occur when nothing is already known because then there is nothing to which reader could link the unknown. Indeed, prior knowledge is so necessary for comprehension to freely flow from easiest to the most complicated. In support to the foregoing view, the researcher primarily ignited the schema of the pupils by infusing related portraits in each skill to be developed in the reading primer. Understanding the meaning of text and knowing the author’s intentions among others are part of comprehension. Russel [6] claims that comprehension requires knowledge not only of words but their relationships in sentences, paragraphs and longer passages. It involves understanding of the intent of the author and may go beyond literal and recorded facts to hidden meaning or implications. Hence, it entails deep thinking and requires skills to infer and read critically. This finding was confirmed in this study since majority of the pupils were categorized under frustration level of reading comprehension. Likewise, according to Villamin [7] there are four levels of comprehension. The first level is the literal which means reading lines, getting the information drift, answering questions on: who, what, where and when. The second level is the interpretive or reading between the lines, combining information and making inferences and comprehending them. In this level, the reader will answer the how and why questions. The third level is the applied or reading beyond the lines, using information to express opinion and form ideas and involves application. The fourth level is the critical level where the reader will answer an open-ended question regarding the behavior of the minor or major character and the style of presentation.

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