B MW Welt ” Munich, Germany ASSIGNMENT 1 : LONG SPAN STRUCTURES (DRAFT ) V.M.CELE | STRU401 | 26/03/2019 DECL ARATION OF AUTHORSHIP OF WORK By uploading this work for assessment, I hereby declare that the following project that I am submitting is my own original work. The project as a whole and everything that comprises the project was accompanied was compiled or completed on my own. This applies to both the conception and execution of the work. All precedents, images, plans et cetera and any bo rrowed ideas of m eaning ful nature have been duly acknowl edged within the workPAGE 1 Introduction In the year 200 0 Bmw hosted an International design competition to build a Multi -use exhibition center tasked around BMW brand expe rience through vehic le delivery for ; customer s and visitors .
On December 12, 2001 COOP HIMMELB(L)AU were awarded first prize in the competition out of 27 2 archit ect applicants and 27 participants respectively . Thus securing 43 000 Euros prize money and the project contract. The Site i s located in Germany, Munich within the Milbertshofen -Am Har t district on the opposite side of the road to the BMW Corporation headquarters and BMW Museum Construction started in August 2003 and lasted a duration of 4 y ears till 2007 .
The facilities include two restaurants, a bistro, a cafe -bar, a multipurpose auditorium for up to 800 people, two conference rooms and a business center, available for the conduct of business events. The showroom is strategically lined with latest BMW cars and motorcycles, and the other two BMW Group brands, Mini and Rolls -Royce. Customers picking up special o rdere d cars are given a “staged experience” in which they await their new car in an enormous glass – walled hal l, and their cars are lifted up from lower levels on round elevator platforms . The Project in numbers: Estimated project cost of US$200 million (R2.8 billion) The Site Area is 25 000 sq uare metres The Floor Area is 16 500 square metres The Gross Floor Area of the Building is 7 3 ooo s quare metres The Building has a Gross Volume Area of 531 000 cubic metres Averages 80 0000 visitors per year BMW Welt saw 2,200,000 visitors during the f irst 12 months of operation.PAGE 2 Philosophy One of the central design ideas of the competi tion wa s to interlink the existing arrangement of the BMW HQ Tower and museum with standout architectural element . This would be key in creating a language to complete the BMW precinct ensemble . The design proposal by COOP HIMMELB(L)AU consists of a large transparent hall with a sculptural roof and a double cone. The buildi ng, with the silhouette feature of futuristic projects of Coop Himmelblau, is covered with steel plates and glass, however, its architect had an inspiration a bit older: the Acropolis in Athens: It is a kind of covered plaza where things can happen not ne cessarily connected to building a car. Structure The irregular structure of the BMW Welt is achieved by means of a Mayan creation of a triangular base of steel girders that manage to create the desired curved surfaces for the project and also form the support structure due to the triangular geometry. unique star -shaped corset’ bearing the load of a 26m ta ll double -cone steel structure. The floating roof, which covers 16,5 00 m2, is sustained on ly by 11 points over the floor. The main materials used in the project include the steel and glass structure for the coatings in different qualities as required. According to the official website of the designers, the BMW Welt is a dynamic construction of semitransparent glass structure with a corrugated steel roof and one ending in a dou ble twist in the form of a cone. The interiors are a composition of monumental stairways, curved bridges and balconies that are held in the air. The double cone of the building is one of the most audacious man -made constructions. This masterpiece of steel and glass designed by Coop Himmelblau maintains a triangular cloud’ of steel, 16,500 m2 of solar panels, and the roof of the building and it seems that flies above BMW Welt.PAGE 3 With the proper lighting, it looks like an asymmetrical Clepsidra, with dimensions of 28 m in height, a maximum diameter of 45 meters and a total weight of 720 tonnes. The lower cone is covered with tempered glass of 8 mm in thickness, as is the higher cone, but it is also reinforced by layers of laminated sa fety glass. The interiors follow the same guidelines. All spaces have protections of perforated stainless steel panels, which slow UV ingress. TECHNICALITY OF SPAC E The realization of the technical build ing facilities within the scope of the architecture led to a planning model with five thematic blocks: Hall, Premiere, Forum, Gastronomy Hall The main goal for this space was to sav e energy, therefore the use of mechanical systems are minimized. For ventilation, heating and cooling the Hall utilizes solar heating to ventilate in a natural sub climatic way. The entire building uses a “natural aeration” system that supplies natural a ir with the help of thermal currents, wind pressure, and turbulence. This source of air comes from the air that accumulates in the area of the facade and roof projection. The automatically controlled vents help distribute air throughout the space. Thank s to the roof system in the Hall, thermal currents and air stream simulations were investigated in order to optimize the control of air intake and outflow vents for natural air. Premiere The Premiere area is where the BMW Welt delivers cars, therefore, th is is an area where the exhaust gases are diffused through negative pressure in order to keep the ventilation clean. Because the Premiere section is open to the Hall, specialists had to make special calculations taking into consideration that 250 cars a d ay would circulate this space. The main goal for this area was to tune the volume of air intake and outflow currents to immediately remove the exhaust fumes and pump in fresh air.PAGE 4 Forum The Forum is considered has a more independent ventilation system du e to the fact that it is an enclosed conference room. In this space, we find more demands concerning comfort and soundproof, considering certain adjustments based on the number of people in the room and also being that it is situated in the middle of the building. The ventilation system for this area involve air jets that expel air laterally and then extracting air throug h the ceiling as exhaust air. Tower Throughout the Tower, which is the place where guests spend long periods of time, air sources are located near the floor to spread all around the area. Considering that glass facades surround the Tower, these facades have profiles that are heated to maintain a pleasant air quality and prevent severe cold drafts from penetrating and changing the indoo r temperature. Double Cone In the Double Cone section, air is distributed through a low induction system that runs through the base of the facade and into the roof through the opening at the top. Similar to the Tower, the floor is air conditioned and the walls and floors also have air circulation coolers to carry a comfortable indoor temperature. Natural ventilation through the facade shutters are utilized in between seasons when it is neither too cold or too hot. Implementation of Struct ure & Materials The traditional approach to a building of this size and complexity would have been to use large steel construction columns and girders, but this would also have applied extreme individual loads to foundation slabs, and unacceptable costs to the client. The solution developed by Harsco Infrastructure used the BOSTA® 100 frame scaffold, stabilising each of the MODEX® props and, with the aid of integrated lattice girders, ensured that the total discharged load of 450 to nnes was evenly distributed over the surface of the foundation slabs.PAGE 5 Energy Calculations Loads during the Winte r Average nighttime winter temperatur e in Munich, Germany: 20 °F Desired tempearture: 68 °F Assumption about length of cooling season at nighttime temperature: 4 months (November through February) Site area: 25,000 m2 = 269,100 ft2 Floor area: 73,000 m2 = 785,800 ft2 Above ground area: 28,500 m2 = 306,800 ft2 Under ground area: 44,500 m2 = 479,000 ft2 Roof area: 16,500 m2 = 177,600 ft2 Wall area (assuming metal panels surface area): 295,400 ft2 Glass area (glass coverage around building): 295,500 ft2 Assumptio ns: R-value of wall material: 10 ftІ·°F·h/Btu R-value of roof material: 30 ftІ·°F·h/Btu R-value of glass: 2 ftІ·°F·h/Btu *HVAC air flow and leakage: neglected Calculations Conduction Q = U * A * ”T U = 1/R Q = (1/R) * A * ”T WallPAGE 6 (1/10 ftІ·°F·h/Btu) * (295,400 ft2) * (68 °F – 20 °F) = 1,417,920 Btu/hr Roof (1/30 ftІ·°F·h/Btu) * (177,600 ft2) * (68 °F – 20 °F) = 284,160 Btu/hr Glass (1/2 ftІ·°F·h/Btu) * (295,500 ft2) * (68 °F – 20 °F) = 7,092,000 Btu/hr TOTAL HEATING LOAD : 8,794,080 Btu/hr –> 8,790,000 Btu/hr Assume: 120,000 Btu/gallon (8,794,080 Btu/hr) / (120,000 Btu/gallon) = 73.28 Gallons/hour of heating oil Assume: $2/Gallon of heating oil (73.28 Gal/hr) * (24 hrs/day) * (365 days/yr) * ($2/ gallon) = $1,283,935.68 heating cost/year –> $1,280,000 heating cost per year Loads during the Summer Average summer temperature in Munich, Germany: 80 °F Desired tempearture: 68 °F Assumption about length of summer season : 3 months (June through Augu st)PAGE 7 Site area: 25,000 m2 = 269,100 ft2 Floo r are a: 73,000 m2 = 785,800 ft2 Above ground area: 28,500 m2 = 306,800 ft2 Under ground area: 44,500 m2 = 479,000 ft2 Roof area: 16,500 m2 = 177,600 ft2 Wall area (assuming metal panels surface area): 295,400 ft2 Glass area (glass coverage around building): 295,500 ft2 Assumptions: R-value of wall material: 10 ftІ·°F·h/Btu R-value of roof material: 30 ftІ·°F·h/Btu R-value of glass: 2 ftІ·°F·h/Btu HVAC ai r flow and leakage: neglected People: 300 Btu/hr Office area: 200 SF/Person Lighting: 1.5 Watts/SF Equipment: 3 Watts/SF Solar: 100 Watts/SF (Horizontal surfaces) 60 Watts/SF (West/East) Tons of AC: 12000 Btu/Hr per Ton Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER): 10 Electrical energy cost: $0.10/KWH Hours of Operation: 9 hours a day Calculations ConductionPAGE 8 Q = U * A * ”T U = 1/R Q = (1/R) * A * ”T Wall (1/10 ftІ·°F·h/Btu) * (295,400 ft2) * (80 °F – 68 °F) = 354,480 Btu/hr (354,480 Btu/hr) * (0.29308 Watts/Btu) = 103,892 Watts/hr (103,892 Watts/hr) * (7 Hrs/day assumed) = 727,244 Watts/day Roof (1/30 ftІ·°F·h/Btu) * (177,600 ft2) * (80 °F – 68 °F) = 71,040 Btu/hr (71,040 Btu/hr) * (0.29308 Watts/Btu) = 20,820.4 Watts/ hr (20,820.4 Watts/hr) * (7 Hrs/day assumed) = 145,743 Watts/day GlassPAGE 9 (1/2 ftІ·°F·h/Btu) * (295,500 ft2) * (80 °F – 68 °F) = 1,773,000 Btu/hr (1,773,000 Btu/hr) * (0.29308 Watts/Btu) = 519,631 Watts/hr (519,631 Watts/hr) * (7 Hrs/day assumed) = 3,63 7,415.9 Watts/day People Estimated Building Occupancy (785,800 SF) / (300 SF/person) = 2,619 People Hourly Load (2,619 People) * (300 Btu/hr people) * (0.29308 Watts/Btu) = 230,273 Watts/hr Daily Load (assume 9 hours a day) (230,273 Watts/hr) * (9 hrs/day) = 2,072,457 Watts/day Lighting Load Hourly Load (392,900 SF) * (1.5 Watts/SF) = 589,350 Watts/hr Daily Load (assume 9 hours a day) (589,350 Watts/hr) * (9 hrs/day) = 5,304,150 Watts/dayPAGE 10 Equipment Load Hourly Load (392,90 0 SF) * (3 Watts/SF) = 1,178,700 Watts/hr Daily Load (assume 10 hours a day) (1,178,700 Watts/hr) * (10 hrs/day) = 11,787,000 Watts/day Radiation – incident solar on horizontal surface Hourly Load (177,600 SF) * (100 Watts/SF) = 17,760,000 Watts/hr Dai ly Load (assume 10 hours of direct sunlight a day) (17,760,000 Watts/hr) * (10 hrs/day) = 177,600,000 Watts/day Radiation – incident solar on west and east facing surface at peak time Hourly Load (61,250 SF + 48,700 SF) * (60 Watts/SF) = 6,597,000 Watts/hr Daily Load (assume 10 hours of direct sunlight a day) (6,597,000 Watts/hr) * (10 hrs/day) = 65,970,000 Watts/day Total Hourly Loads: 103,892 Watts/hr + 20,820 Watts/hr + 519,631 Watts/hr + 23 0,273 Watts/hr + 589,350 Watts/hr + 1,178,700 Watts/hr + 17,760,000 Watts/hr + 6,597,000 Watts/hr =PAGE 11 26,999,666 Watts/hr = 92,123,877 Btu/hr –> 92,120,000 Btu/hr = 7,677 Tons of HVAC –> 7,680 Tons of HVAC Total Daily Loads: 727,244 Watts/day + 145,743 W atts/day + 3,637,415.9 Watts/day + 2,072,457 Watts/day + 5,304,150 Watts/day + 11,787,000 Watts/day + 177,600,000 Watts/day + 65,970,000 Watts/day = 267,244,010 Watts/day –> 267,000,000 Watt/day Total Loads: 267,244,010 Watts/day * (180 days) = 48,103, 921,800 Watts = 164,130,581,182 Btu = 164,000,000,000 Btu Total Annual Loads: 267,244,010 Watts/day * (365 days) = 97,544,063,650 Watts = 332,820,345,173.8 Btu = 333,000,000,000 Btu Cost (333,000,000,000 Btu) / (10 Btu/W -hr) / (1000 W/kW) = $33,300,000 kW -hr (33,300,000 kW -hr) * ($0.10 /kW -hr) = $3,330,000 per year Cost per Square Foot (SF) ($3,330,000) / (785,800 SF) = $4.24 per SFPAGE 12 Conclusion During a winter night in Munich, Germany with a temperature of 20 °F, the total hourly heating load was found to be aroun d 8,790,000 Btu/hr. During the summer when the temperature is 80 °F, the total hourly cooling load is nearly 92,120,000 Btu/hr. In the summer we can see that the cooling load is significantly higher because the temperature needs to be readjusted to a mor e comfortable and suitable temperature for both the people and the equipment considering the humidity and aridness of the summer. The relative cost of heating the building is around $1,28 0,000 per year. The relative cost to cool the building is around $3,330,000 per year. The relative cost is higher to cool the building because this is corresponding to the relative magnitude of cooling load. Since the cooling load is higher, so is the r elative cost. During the summer, the cost to cool a building is usually higher than in any other time throughout the year. Especially in a place like the BMW Welt, the temperature needs to be consistently cool for the equipment, cars, people and entire b uilding. R ecommendations Considering that this building is a car distributor with car combustion and exhaust mixing with fresh air in a contained building, this building might have needed detailed HVAC calculations in order to maintain the fresh air quality all throughout.PAGE 13 References 1. BMW Tower Image By Diego Delso, CC BY -SA 3.0, 2. BMW Welt Image 2195×1356 px jpg By Maximilian D¶rrbecker (Chumwa) – Own work, CC BY -SA 2.5, 3. Sketch – -himmelblau.at/architecture/projects/bmw -welt/ 4. Schmitt, Bernd; Van Zutphen, Glenn (2012), Happy Customers Everywhere: How Your Business Can Profit from the Insights of Positive Psychology, Macmillan, p. 64 5. BMW Welt Competition : 6. Structure : itectura.com/building/bmw -welt/ 7. Construction of cone : -cars/245034 -bmw -welt – roof -construction.html 8. Double cone: -architects.com/fr/coop -himmelb -l-au – vienna/project/bmw -welt 9. Im plementation of structure: w.aluma.com/us/track_record?view=383 10. -6.asp 11. ttp://inhabitat.com/bmw -welt -solar -powered -masterpiece -in-munich/bmw -welt – solar -powered -masterpiece -in-munich -bmw -welt -building -in-munich -coop – himmelblau -wolf -prix -bmw -welt -himmelblau -wolf -prix -munich -solarwatt – sunstrom/ 12.