Asghar Molaei Dehkordi and Mohammad Ghasemi (2012) they direct transesterification of waste cooking oil to bio-fuel utilizing Calcium & Zirconium mix metal oxides as heterogeneous base catalyst. Heterogeneous strong catalyst involving CaO and ZrO2 mix oxides with different Ca & Zr molar proportions were prepared by methods of co precipitation technique. These combined metal oxide catalyst were utilized for transesterification of waste cooking oil as raw material with methanol to create biodiesel fuel at 65 °C temperature and 1 atm pressure. The impacts of Ca & Zr molar proportion, catalyst stacking, methanol-to-oil molar proportion, and the response time on the biodiesel yield were investigated carefully.
Moreover, the strength of arranged strong catalyst was studied. These catalysts were physically characterized by utilizing procedures of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray florescence(XRF), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), surface zone estimation (BET strategy), and temperature programmed desorption(TPD). Also, the acquired trial results obviously demonstrate that the movement of mixed catalyst increments with expanding the Ca-to-Zr molar proportion however the stability of the catalyst diminishes too.
Under the suitable transesterification conditions at 65 °C ( catalyst loading=10 wt.%, methanol-to-oil molar proportion=30:1, and response time=2 h) Biodiesel fuel yield of 92.1% could be accomplished over CaO-ZrO2 catalyst with Ca-to-Zr molar proportion of 0.5. Besides, the acquired exploratory outcomes plainly demonstrate that incorporated catalyst can be utilized as stable, recyclable, and vigorous catalyst for generation of biodiesel from waste cooking oil.Alhassan et al (2015) they think about that the preparation of the waste cooking oil based biodiesel by means of adequate reuse bi functional Fe2O3 MnO SO42_/ZrO2 nanoparticle strong catalyst .The ferric”manganese doped sulfated zirconia nanoparticle strong acidic catalyst was set up through the impregnation response pursued by calcination at 600 0C temperature for 3 h reaction time. The physically characterization was performed by utilizing X-ray diffraction (XRD) Temperature programmed desorption of NH3 (TPD-NH3/CO2)’ Thermal gravimetric investigation (TGA)’ Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR)’ Brunner”Emmett”Teller (BET) surface zone estimation’ Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS),’Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). What’s more, the reliance of the biodiesel yield on the response factors, for example, response temperatures, catalyst stacking , just as the molar proportion of methanol/oil and reusability of catalyst , were likewise examined. The catalyst was reused multiple times without misfortune in its action with the most extreme yield of 96.5 % accomplished under the streamlined states of the reaction temperature = 1800 C, speed of stirring =600 rpm; 1_20= M proportion of oil to methanol and 3 wt/wt% catalyst stacking. Moreover, fuel properties of synthesized biodiesel from the waste cooking oil were compared and investigated with those of European and American standards.Kesi et al ( and either TiO2, MnO2, ZrO2 or Fe2O3 powders.X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a pure single perovskite phase for all four samples after calcination. Thisstudy proved that the pure perovskite phase exhibited low or no catalytic activity at 60 °C for the methanolysis of sunflower oil. However, at 165 °C FAME yield of more than 90% was reached after 2 h using CaTiO3, CaMnO3 and CaZrO3 as catalyst. Contrary to inactive pure perovskites at 60 °C, the CaTiO3 and Ca2Fe2O5 samples containinga very small amount of free CaO also showed methanolysis activity at 60 °C. This fact can be used to explain some contradictory statements reported in literature related to the perovskites as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis at mild temperatures.Alhassan et al (2016) they conduct Optimization of simultaneous production of waste cooking oil based-biodiesel using iron-manganese doped zirconia-supported molybdenum oxide nanoparticles catalyst. Biodiesel derived from simultaneous esterification and transesterification of waste cooking oil has been attracting consideration as a replacement green fuel for dieselfuels, as it is economically feasible and circumvents the issue of energy versus food,which is estimated to take place with current biodiesel production techniques. In thisoptimization study, iron-manganese doped zirconia-supported molybdenum oxidecatalyst has been prepared and used in the synthesis of waste cooking oil based biodieselby a simultaneous esterification and transesterification method. The catalyst issprepared via an impregnation method and consequently characterized by XRD,TEM, TGA (thermogravimetric analysis), TPD-NH3, and Brunauer”Emmer”Teller(BET) techniques. The simultaneous process for biodiesel production has beenassessed and improved statistically via response surface methodology in combinationwith the central composite design. It has been established that the process forsynthesis of waste cooking oil based biodiesel achieved about 96.8% biodiesel yieldat a best condition of 200 _C, waste cooking oil/ methanol molar ratio of 1:30 and5.0 wt. % as loading of the catalyst. The highest ester yield of 96.8% has beenobtained due to the improved physicochemical properties of zirconia-supported molybdenumoxide catalyst which accesses diffusion of the reactants to the active sites.