As preparation for the final research paper, formulate a theory about the correlation between a measurable dependent variable (the effect) and measurable independent variables (the causes). The topic area you need to consider is pay and performance in Major League Sports. Be sure to have at least two independent variables for proposed research paper. The topic proposal should include the following four items which serve as the foundation for the final research paper after instructor feedback is given. 1) Purpose Statement In one paragraph, state the correlation and identify the primary independent variables. State the correlation as in the following: “The dependent variable _______ is determined by independent variables ________, _________, ________, and ________.” Identify and defend the “primary” independent variable, or the variable believed to have the strongest impact on the dependent variable: “The most important independent variable in this relationship is ________ because _________.” 2) Definition of Variables For each variable, write a single definition paragraph talking about the variable. Paragraphs should be in this order: dependent variable, primary independent variable, and three independent variables. In addition to defining the independent variables, defend why each determines the dependent variable. For the primary independent variable, at least two research sources that discuss the variable also must be cited. These sources need not be technical documents but should contain evidence to justify the relationship between the primary independent variable and the dependent variable. List these sources in the Works Cited (reference) page. **Note: Citations from encyclopedias, Wikipedia, blogs, abstracts, or non-governmental websites are not acceptable research sources. 3) Data Description For each of the variables, at least 30 observations of cross-sectional or time-series data must be obtained. Thus for the final research paper, a data matrix that is at least 30 rows by numbers of variables must be presented. In one paragraph, identify the data sources and describe the data (e.g., which government agencies supply the data, which methods are used to compile them, when they were collected, etc.). 4) Works Cited Page The final page of the proposal should be a Works Cited page listing the two research sources for the primary independent variable and the data sources, with a separate citation for each table of data, including specific table numbers for each of the sources.


Pay and Performance Major League Sports


Institution affiliations




Term Paper Proposal

Purpose Statement

“The dependent variable revenue is determined by independent variables average salary, matches played, number of goals and performance (Number of points earned)”

“The most important independent variable in this relationship is performance (number of points earned) because this determines the position of the team

Definition of variables

The dependent variable, in this case, is revenue. This can also be interpreted as the predicted variable. i.e., with the independent variable, we can define a linear relationship which can forecast the future value of revenue given the independent variables. Any change in the independent variables should influence revenue. For example, the performance of a team directly affects the amount it receives from the trophy.

The first and most important independent variable is performance. Performance, in this case, is measured by the number of points earned in the whole league. A win in each match earns the team three points; a draw earns it two points while a defeat earns it zero points (Statista, 20117). Hence, if a team has won all the games, it will have the maximum number of points. Thus, if a team has the maximum number of points, it gets the trophy and earns a token. To this end, this is the most important independent variable because it determines the position of the team.

The second independent variable is average salary. In this case, average salary refers to the salary received by players. As a hypothesis, the club which pays the highest amount of salary is likely to attract the best players. When the best players are in a team, this will make them win many games and influence the general performance of the team causing it to receive a higher reward. Also, these best players can be used to attract more fans to the club causing the stadium to be filled whenever there is a match. This directly generates revenue. These players are also used in advertisement hence generating revenue for the club.

The third independent variable is the number of goals. The higher the number of goals scored, the higher the chances of being the best performer. Take for example a situation where, for example, Manchester United has won eight matches with eight goals and Manchester City has won equally eight games but with 24 goals (World Football, 2017). Determining the winner here will not depend on the points but the goal difference and hence it will be better. Therefore, the number of goals determine the revenue of a club. Also, there are trophies which are paid depending on the number of goals earned hence increasing the revenue.

The fourth and the final independent variable is matches played. The number of matches played greatly influences the number of wins hence affecting performance which later influences the revenue.

Data Description

The data used for this analysis shall be based on English Premier League season 2017/2018 and UEFA Champions League season 2017/2018. These data shall be extracted online from the football data website which is an open source for football data. Where the data is not organized, it shall be exported to excel and organized by way of bringing only the desired columns together and then prepared for analysis (World Football, 2017). The data have already been archived on these websites by the end of May 2018 and shall be extracted from the date of this research.



Statista. (20117). Statista. Retrieved from Average annual player salary in the English Premier League in 2017/18, by team (in million U.S. dollars):

World Football. (2017). World Football. Retrieved from Premier League 2 – Division 1:


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